2.outline.2.abnormal.lsu.f.09

2.outline.2.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - 1 Types of...

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1. Types of neurotransmitters include: a. Serotonin – 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) - is concentrated in the midbrain and connected to the cortex, thus producing widespread effects on behavior, mood, and thought processes. Extremely low levels of serotonin are associated with less inhibition, instability, impulsivity, and tendencies to overreact to situations b. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) reduces postsynaptic activity which, in turn, inhibits several behaviors and emotions, particularly anxiety. Benzodiazepines – (mild tranquilizers) makes it easier for GABA to attach to specialized receptors. -reduces overall arousal and tempers anger, hostility, aggression, and possibly excessive anticipation and even positive emotional states. c. Norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) is also part of the endocrine system and important in psychopathology. N orepinephrine stimulates at least alpha-adrenergic and beta- adrenergic receptors. Beta-blockers – reduce the surge in norepinephrine and keep heart rate and blood pressure down d. Dopamine (also classified as a catecholamine) has been implicated in schizophrenia and may act by "switching on" various brain circuits that inhibit or facilitate emotions or behavior. (too much dopamine -> parkinson’s) F. Implications for psychopathology 1. Methods for studying brain images have been applied to psychopathology. 2. The work of neuroscience is only beginning and one cannot be certain about the relation between the orbital surface and OCD. It is possible that overactivity in this region of the brain is a consequence, not a cause, of OCD. G. Psychosocial influences on brain structure and function Keep in mind that direct biological treatments like psychosurgery often have severe side effects and are therefore not usually the first option explored for treatment.
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