2.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER TWO AN INTEGRATIVE...

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CHAPTER TWO AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY I. One-Dimensional or Multidimensional Models A. One-dimensional models – hypothesize single causes of psychopathology (e.g., it’s all conditioning, it’s all biology, it’s all social or psychological) B. Multi-dimensional models – are systemic and often interdisciplinary, and hold that a system of different reciprocal influences (i.e., biological, cognitive, learning, emotional. Social, cultural, developmental) interact in complex ways to yield the major etiological and maintaining processes responsible for abnormal behavior. II. Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology A. Gregor Mendel's work in the 19th century initially demonstrated that our physical characteristics are largely determined by genetic endowment. - with respect to mental disorder, genetic influences are predominant in some cases such as Huntington’s disease and PKU (metabolic disorder), both of which lead to different types of cognitive deficits. B. The Nature of Genes 1. Genes are long molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) that are located at various chromosomal sites within the cell nucleus. -problems sometimes develop when the normal contingent of 46 human chromosomes (arranged in 23 pairs) is disturbed -an example is Down’s syndrome or trisomy 21, where a person inherits an extra chromosome on the 21 st pair. 2. The DNA molecular structure of genes is referred to as a double helix or spiral ladder. The first 22 pairs of chromosomes program development of body and brain and the last pair, called the sex chromosomes , determines sex phenotype. A defective gene – something is wrong with respect to the ordering of DNA molecules on the double helix. A dominant gene – one of the pair of genes that determine a particular trait.
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A recessive gene - must be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait. 3. Genes seldom determine our physical development in any absolute way and the same is true for psychopathology. Much of human development and behavior is polygenic - influences by many genes that individually exert a tine effect quantitative genetics – sums up all the tiny effects across many genes without necessarily telling us which genes are responsible for which effects. There is no “depression gene”, but there may be a group of genes that causes depression. C.
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2.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER TWO AN INTEGRATIVE...

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