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5.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER FIVE ANXIETY...

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CHAPTER FIVE ANXIETY DISORDERS I. Anxiety, Fear, and Panic: Some Definitions A. Anxiety - mood state characterized by very negative emotions and bodily symptoms of tension in which a person nervously anticipates future danger or misfortune. Symptoms of Anxiety Somatic Emotional Goosebumps Sense of dread Tense muscles Terror Increased heart rate Restlessness Accelerated respiration Irritability Deepened respiration Spleen contraction Cognitive Dilated peripheral blood vessels Anticipation of harm Widened bronchioles Exaggeration of harm Dilated pupils Problems in concentrating Increased perspiration Adrenaline secretion Behavioral Inhibited stomach acid Escape Decreased salivation Avoidance Bladder relaxation Aggression Freezing Decreased eating 1. Anxiety is a normal emotion that is useful when experienced in moderate amounts. 2. The emotion of anxiety becomes problematic (psychologically speaking) when it is experienced excessively and keeps you from accomplishing your daily activities. B. Fear is an immediate alarm reaction to dangerous or life threatening situations (fight or flight response; emergency or defensive reaction fear). Fear is a present- oriented mood state characterized by strong avoidance and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Much evidence suggests that fear differs psychologically and biologically from anxiety.
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1. Fear is also a normal emotional response that is adaptive when experienced in response to real danger or threat. Fear is accompanied by strong urge to escape and a surge of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system kick starts your fight or flight response. 2. We should distinguish between adaptive fear and maladaptive anxiety: a. Adaptive fear – concerns are realistic, given the circumstances. Maladaptive anxiety – concerns are not likely to hurt them, or are unlikely to occur. b. Adaptive fear – amount of fear is proportionate to threat. Maladaptive anxiety – fear is out of proportion to threat c. Adaptive fear – fear response lessens when threat has passed Maladaptive anxiety – fear is persistent, and they may anticipate threats. C. A panic attack is an abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The word panic derives from Pan, the Greek god of nature. About 40% of young people have occasional panic attacks. -Frequency; lack of provocation; worry about future attacks; change in behavior. 1. Three types of panic attacks are described in the DSM-IV-TR: a. Situationally bound (cued) panic attack is one that is expected in a given situation and is bound to some situations and not others. -Common in persons suffering from specific phobias and social phobia.
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5.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER FIVE ANXIETY...

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