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7.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER SEVEN MOOD DISORDERS...

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CHAPTER SEVEN MOOD DISORDERS AND SUICIDE I. Understanding and Defining Mood Disorders A. An overview of depression and mania 1. The disorders described in this chapter used to be called “depressive disorders,” affective disorders,” or even “depressive neuroses.” Beginning with the DSM-III, these problems were grouped under the heading mood disorders because they all represent large deviations in mood. 2. Mood disorders are characterized by the experience of depression and mania, either alone or in combination. 3. Major depressive episode – is most commonly diagnosed and most severe form of depression. Diagnosed when you have 5 or more symptoms within a 2 week period. a. Extremely depressed mood state (in kids and teens can present as irritability). b. Anhedonia , or the loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. c. Weight loss or gain – 5% change in a month d. Hypersomnia or insomnia e. Psychomotor agitation or retardation – observable by others f. Fatigue, loss of energy g. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt h. Difficulty thinking, concentrating, inability to make decisions i. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide 4. Mania – abnormally exaggerated elation, joy, or euphoria. Hypomanic episode - less severe version of a manic episode that does not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning. DSM-IV-TR criteria for a manic episode includes 3 or more of the following symptoms for at least 1 week, although shorter if hospitalization is required: a. Inflated self-esteem b. Decreased need for sleep c. More talkative than usual d. Flight of ideas – rapid, often incoherent speech; trying to convey too much too quickly e. Distractibility f. Increase in goal-directed activity g. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences – spending sprees, sexual indiscretions, etc.
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Irritability often accompanies the manic episode toward the end of its duration – they may not have been sleeping; may be reaching end of energy reserves Anxiousness and depression are often part of a manic episode B. The structure of mood disorders 1. Unipolar disorder - experience of either depression or mania, and most individuals with this condition suffer from unipolar depression Bipolar disorder - alternations between depression and mania. Dysphoric manic or mixed episode – feeling depression and manic at the same time 2. An important feature of major depressive episodes is that they are time limited , lasting 2 weeks to 9 months if left untreated. Almost all major depressive episodes remit without treatment. Manic episodes remit without treatment after six months. Course modifiers - characterize the past mood state and are helpful to predict the future course of the disorder. Understanding the course is related to predicting future occurrences of mood changes and in helping to prevent them.
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7.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER SEVEN MOOD DISORDERS...

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