9.outline.abnormal.f.09

9.outline.abnormal.f.09 - CHAPTER NINE PHYSICAL DISORDERS...

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CHAPTER NINE PHYSICAL DISORDERS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY I. Psychological and Social Factors that Influence Health A. At present, some of the major contributing factors to illness and death are psychological and behavioral. This chapter is concerned with the relations between psychological and social factors on medical illness and disease. B. Health and health-related behavior 1. B ehavioral medicine – is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioural, psychological, and social sciences that are relevant to health and illness. Health psychology – is concerned with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. Health psychologists work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, work on behavior change in public health promotion, teach at universities, and conduct research. 2. Psychological and social factors influence health in two distinct ways: 3. AIDS 4. As many as 50% of all deaths from the 10 leading causes of death in the United States can be traced to life-style behaviors – Heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, influenza and pneumonia, nephritis, nephritic syndrome, and nephrosis, and septicemia. C. The nature of stress 1. Stress is the psychological factor that has received the greatest amount of attention. Hans Selye's early experimental work with rats led to the area of study known as stress physiology. 2. S tress – is a biological term for the consequences of the failure of a human or animal to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. [1] It includes a state of alarm and
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adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and elevated heart rate. General adaptation syndrome – a universal response to stressors that is a series of reactions, broken into three stages. a. Alarm response- is the first stage. When the threat or stressor is identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the fight-or-flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol. b. Resistance - is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. c.
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9.outline.abnormal.f.09 - CHAPTER NINE PHYSICAL DISORDERS...

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