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13.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09

13.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER THIRTEEN...

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CHAPTER THIRTEEN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS I. Schizophrenia is characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include hallucinations and delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions. -complete recovery is rare -costs about $65 billion a year in the US II. Clinical Description, Symptoms, and Subtypes A. The term psychotic is often used to characterize unusual behaviors, but it really refers to either delusions or hallucinations B. Positive symptoms - refer to active manifestations of abnormal behavior or an excess or distortion of normal behavior 1. Delusions refer to a belief that would be seen by most members of society as a misrepresentation of reality; often referred to as a disorder of thought content. -some research suggests that delusions give some patients a sense of meaning and purpose in life and result in less depression. Types of delusions include: a. Delusions of grandeur - belief that one is particularly famous or important. b. Delusions of persecution – belief that other people are out to get or harm the person. c. Capgras syndrome – belief that someone a person knows has been replaced by a double. d. Cotard’s syndrome - person believes that a part of the body (e.g., brain) has changed in some impossible way, usually believe that they have died and are rotting. 2. Hallucinations refer to the experience of sensory events without any input from the surrounding environment. Hallucinations can involve any of the senses; auditory hallucinations are most common C. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia indicate the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior. 1. Avolition – or apathy. Inability to initiate and persist in activities.
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2. Alogia refers to the relative absence of speech. Brief replies to questions with little content, delayed comments or slowed responses to questions, or as disinterest in conversation. Thought to reflect a negative thought disorder, not inadequate communication skills. 3. Anhedonia - a lack of pleasure, or indifference to activities that would normally be considered pleasurable, including eating, social interactions, and sexual relations. 4. Affective flattening - or flat affect, absence of normally expected emotional responses. Little change in facial expression, but not the experience of appropriate emotions. Difficulty in expression, not inability to feel emotion. Children who later develop schizophrenia show less positive and more negative affect than normal siblings. Lack of expressed affect may be important in the development of schizophrenia. For example, children who later develop schizophrenia show less positive and more negative affect than normal siblings. D. Disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia include rambling speech, erratic behavior, and inappropriate affect.
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