Absnormalpsych14

Absnormalpsych14 - CHAPTER FOURTEEN DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS...

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS I. What is Normal? What is Abnormal? A. Developmental psychopathology – study of how disorders arise and change with time In general, childhood is associated with significant developmental changes that follow a specific pattern. Any disruption in development of early skills will likely disrupt development of later skills. II. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder A. The primary characteristics of persons with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) are inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity. Such persons start many tasks but rarely finish them, have trouble concentrating, and do not seem to pay attention when others speak. These symptoms may lead to other problems such as poor academic performance and peer difficulties. Kids with ADHD are often described as fidgety in school, unable to sit still for more than a few minutes. B. For ADHD, the DSM-IV-TR differentiates two clusters of symptoms. 1. The first cluster includes problems of inattention . 2. The second cluster includes symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity . 3. Either the first or the second cluster must be present for someone to be diagnosed with ADHD. C. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity often result in other problems that are secondary to ADHD. Poor academic performance, unpopularity and peer rejection, and low self-esteem resulting from frequent negative feedback by parents and teachers. D. ADHD is estimated to occur in 6% of school-aged children, with boys outnumbering girls 4 to 1. The reason for this large gender difference is unknown. 1. Children with ADHD are first identified as different from their peers around age 3 or 4, and the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity become increasingly obvious during the school years. 2. 68% of children with ADHD continue to have problems as adults, mostly inattention. 3. Children are more likely to be labeled ADHD in the United States than anywhere else. E. The causes of ADHD have centered on genetics, brain damage, and maternal smoking. 1. With regard to genetics , it has been known for some time that ADHD is more common in families with one person having the disorder, and such families display an increase in psychopathology in general, including conduct disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse.
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More than one gene appears responsible for ADHD, and many are considering possible subtypes of ADHD. 2. Brain damage has been implicated as a cause of ADHD for several decades as reflected in use of labels such as “minimal brain damage” or “minimal brain dysfunction.” a. Smaller size of the frontal cortex, the basal ganglia and the cerebellar vermis have been recently associated with ADHD b. This smaller volume seems to occur early in brain development.
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