What is Normal? What is Abnormal?
– study of how disorders arise and change with
In general, childhood is associated with significant developmental changes that
follow a specific pattern.
Any disruption in development of early skills will likely disrupt development of
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
A. The primary characteristics of persons with
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
) are inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity.
Such persons start many tasks
but rarely finish them, have trouble concentrating, and do not seem to pay attention
when others speak.
These symptoms may lead to other problems such as poor academic
performance and peer difficulties.
Kids with ADHD are often described as fidgety in school, unable to sit still for
more than a few minutes.
B. For ADHD, the DSM-IV-TR differentiates two clusters of symptoms.
The first cluster includes problems of
The second cluster includes symptoms of
hyperactivity and impulsivity
Either the first or the second cluster must be present for someone to be
diagnosed with ADHD.
C. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity often result in other problems that are
secondary to ADHD.
Poor academic performance, unpopularity and peer rejection, and low self-esteem
resulting from frequent negative feedback by parents and teachers.
D. ADHD is estimated to occur in 6% of school-aged children, with boys outnumbering
girls 4 to 1.
The reason for this large gender difference is unknown.
Children with ADHD are first identified as different from their peers around
age 3 or 4, and the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity
become increasingly obvious during the school years.
68% of children with ADHD continue to have problems as adults, mostly
Children are more likely to be labeled ADHD in the United States than
causes of ADHD
have centered on genetics, brain damage, and maternal
With regard to
, it has been known for some time that ADHD is more
common in families with one person having the disorder, and such families
display an increase in psychopathology in general, including conduct disorder,
mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse.