chpt_2cellnot

chpt_2cellnot - Chapter 2 The Cell : Structure and Function...

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Chapter 2 The Cell : Structure and Function I. Biomolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Amino Acids and Proteins Nucleotides Organic Molecules Common Functional Groups in Biomolecules Organic Molecules Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. Know their monomers (basic repeating unit) their roles and how they differ Carbohydrates Organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. CH 2 0 Monosaccharide: C 6 H 12 O 6 Simple sugar Glucose, fructose Monosaccharides Carbohydrates Disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides joined covalently. Sucrose, lactose Polysaccharide: Numerous monosaccharides joined covalently. Starch, glycogen Disaccharides Polysaccharides Lipids Diverse group of molecules. NO monomers
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Insoluble in water Hydrophobic Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings. What is the function of fat in your body? Your ENERGY RESERVE ! (1 gram fat = 2X energy in 1 gram carbs) Classes of Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Eicosanoids Steroids Triglycerides Glycerol = 3 C Alcohol Fatty Acid = Long Carbon Chain Acid saturated fatty acids unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acid chains make triglycerides hydrophobic Components of Triglycerides Triglycerides Saturated vs Unsaturated No double bonds Solid at room temp Contributes to LDL or “bad” cholesterol Mostly animal origin Ex: butter, bacon, fat NOT: fish oils At least one double bond Liquid at room temp Does not contribute to cholesterol Mostly plant in origin Ex: olive oil, canola oil NOT : coconut or palm oil Advantages of Olestra? Tastes good (fat based)
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Zero calories from fat Phospholipids Structures Formed by Phospholipids in Aqueous Environment Eicosanoids Steroids Source of cholesterol : food (you eat it) liver (you make it) Functions of cholesterol: -Important component of cell membranes - precursor for all the steroid compounds in your body Why the bad reputation?
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chpt_2cellnot - Chapter 2 The Cell : Structure and Function...

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