Chpt_3_metabolism

Chpt_3_metabolism - Chapter 3 Cell Metabolism This will...

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Chapter 3 Cell Metabolism This will probably be your most difficult chapter Chapter Outline Types of Metabolic Reactions Metabolic Reactions and Energy Reaction Rates Metabolism Metabolism = sum of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell Energy metabolism = reactions involved in energy storage and use I. Types of Metabolic Reactions Chemical Reactions Hydrolysis and Condensation Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation Oxidation-Reduction Chemical Reactions Reactants (or substrates) Products A + B C + D Direction of reaction Forward Reverse Metabolic Reactions Catabolism = breakdown of organic molecules Anabolism = synthesis of organic molecules Metabolic Pathways Sequence of enzymatic reactions that begins with initial substrate, progresses through intermediates and end with a final product. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: OIL RIG II. Metabolic Reactions and Energy Energy-releasing and Energy-requiring Reactions Energy Changes in Reactions Activation Energy Energy Capacity to do work Energy-Releasing and Energy-Requiring Reactions Catabolic reactions Release energy Anabolic reactions Require energy
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First Law of Thermodynamics Human body is an open system Energy can be neither created nor destroyed Energy Changes in Reactions Energy exchanged in all reactions Molecules possess energy Change in energy of a reaction = E W E = E products – E reactants Energy-releasing Reaction Energy in reactants > Energy in products Energy Released Energy Change in Energy-releasing Reaction Energy-requiring Reaction Energy in reactants < Energy in products Energy input required Energy Change in Energy-requiring Reaction Types of Energy Kinetic energy – Potential energy – Chemical energy – Potential and Kinetic Energy Direction of Reactions Energy releasing reactions G E is NEGATIVE Occurs Energy-requiring reactions G E is POSITIVE Does Requires Coupling Reactions Energy from energy-releasing reaction used to drive energy-requiring reaction Equilibrium
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Energy of Equilibrium Energy of molecules depends on At equilibrium, Law of Mass Action An increase in the concentration of reactants tends to push a reaction forward An increase in the concentration of products tends to push a reaction in reverse Law of Mass Action for Energy-releasing Reaction Law of Mass Action for Energy-requiring Reaction Activation Energy Activation Energy Barrier for Forward and Reverse Reactions Reaching the Transition State Insufficient Energy to Reach the Transition State III. Reaction Rates Enzymes Coenzymes Enzyme Affinity Allosteric Regulation Feedback Inhibition Reaction Rates Factors Affecting Reaction Rate Law of Mass Action Concentration of reactant Concentration of product Temperature Height of Activation Energy Barrier Role of Enzymes in Chemical Reactions
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