Chapter_1_and_introduction_-_SP_2010

Chapter_1_and_introduction_-_SP_2010 - KIN 4512: Lifespan...

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Unformatted text preview: KIN 4512: Lifespan Motor Development Dr. T. Gilmour Reeve Helen "Bessie" Silverberg Pliner Professor Chair - Department of Kinesiology Click to edit Master subtitle style Graduate Assistant: Mr. Ben Dalton KIN 4512: Lifespan Motor Development Course Syllabus Complete Syllabus available through Moodle includes Instructor/GA contact information Course Description and Objectives Required Textbook: Course Assignments and Grading Course Calendar Payne & Isaacs (2008), Human motor development: A Click to editapproach (7th edition). lifespan Master subtitle style KIN 4512:Course Activities One-Minute Quizzes 12 to 15 quizzes, 10 will count for grade @ 3 points each 3 out of class assignments on topics in motor development @ 20 points each 2 exams @ 120 points each (objective + short answer) Comprehensive Final 120 points (objective + Click to edit Master subtitle style short answer) Graduate Students also write a review paper KIN 4512:Course Grading 2 Tests @ 120 = 240 pts 10 Quizzes @ 3 pts = 30 pts 3 Assignments @ 20 pts = 60 pts Comprehensive Final = 120 pts TOTAL = 450 pts A = 450 Master subtitle style 360, C = 359 315, Click to edit 405, B = 404 D = 314 270, F < 270 Graduate Students grades based on 550 pts. KIN 4512: Class Expectations "Taking a class" means "Attending class" Be on time and prepared for class No make-up on 1-minute quizzes (only 10 count) Assignments due on time and in class Inform instructor of absences and provide official excuses Don't hesitate to make appointment with instructor/GA Click to edit Master subtitle style if having difficulty in class Class calendar is tentative and changes will be announced in class KIN 4512:Course Calendar First Weeks 1/19 - introduction to course & begin Chapter 1 1/21 & 1/26 continue Chapter 1 1/28 Chapter 4 2/2 Conclude Chapter 4 & begin Chapter 5 2/4 Conclude Chapter 5 2/9 & 2/11 Chapter 6 2/16 Click to edit Gras subtitle style Mardi Master See syllabus for complete calendar Introduction to Motor Development Chapter 1 Click to edit Master subtitle style Human behavior is not compartmentalized; there is a complex system of constant, reciprocal exchanges among an individual's cognitive, affective, and physical, motor being Motor Behavior s Study of human movement behavior Behavioral level of analysis Examination of processes and conditions that impact the individual's growth, maturation, learning, and control throughout the lifespan. s s Motor Behavior Motor Behavior is s Motor development s Motor learning s Motor control (Ulrich & Reeve. (2005). Studies in Motor Behavior: 75 Years of Research in Motor Development, Learning, and Control. RQES, 76,supplement, 2005) Motor Development is... s Process through which we pass during the course of our life Includes both: Maturation (organizational and functional changes) s Growth (an increase in size) s s Also, motor development is a field of study Various definitions of Motor Development s Changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment. (Scholarly Directions Committee, 1974) s Changes in movement competencies from infancy to adulthood and involves many aspects of human behavior, both as they affect movement development and as movement development affects them. (Keogh, 1977) Definitions cont'd: s The sequential, continuous age-related process whereby an individual progresses from simple, unorganized, and unskilled movement to the achievement of highly organized, complex motor skills and finally to the adjustment of skills that accompanies aging. (Haywood, 1993) Current definition of Motor Development s Motor development is the study of changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them (Payne & Isaacs, 2008) The Domains of Human Development These domains are not separate or independent, but are interrelated and continuously interact and effect each other. Why Study Motor Development? s s s s Human development is multifaceted motor domain is important in understanding human development Can diagnose, intervene, or remediate cases Can design developmentally appropriate movement curricula Can promote effective learning of motor tasks for people of all ages and abilities Elements of Developmental Change Qualitative Sequential Cumulative Directional No than just "more" [quantitative] Predictable order Behaviors built on previous ones Ultimate goal (outcome) Multifactorial Many factors (physical, psychological, environmental) influence change Individual Rate of change is individual History of the Field s s Precursor Period (1787-1928): Descriptive observation Gesell & McGraw: Johnny & Jimmy twins s Maturational Period (1928-46): Mvt. process (critical periods) & product (changes) Baley's scales of MD s Dormant Period (mid 1940s-60): However, motor skill training was important in WW II History cont'd s Normative/Descriptive Period (1960-70): 1960: Kephart's Slow Learner in the Classroom. Emphasized movement experiences and academic performance Norm-referenced standardized tests Biomechanical analysis of mvt. studies Connolly's Mechanisms of Motor Skill Development Return to the study of the processes of MD. s Process-oriented Period (1970s-present): Process-oriented Period ~ First Era ~ Information-Processing Theory (1970s-80s) Psychologists' perspective Information comes in and is processed by the brain, a motor program is selected and carried out. Stimulus [Perception - Decision Program] Response r [Feedback] IP Theory still relevant in Motor Behavior Research Process-oriented Period ~ Second Era ~ Dynamical Systems Theory (1980s-present) s s Movements are a product of several components (or constraints physical, environmental, task) Attractor - a particular combination of interactions of variables that represent a stable state (preferred) and to which the system returns to or settles in if perturbed, distressed or upset. (Thelen, 1995) Process-oriented Period ~ Second Era ~ Dynamical Systems Theory s s Attractor - a particular combination of interactions of variables that represent a stable state (preferred) and to which the system returns to or settles in if perturbed, distressed or upset. Pinching Experiment In-phase (preferred state?) Anti-phase Speeded task Change in amplitude (Thelen, 1995) Dynamical Systems... s From dynamic principles we can predict that change is due to the loss of stability. Some changing components in the system must disrupt the current stable pattern so that the system is free to explore and select new coordinative modes. The system changes state over time in search for stability. Current Trends: Lifespan Perspective s Motor Development doesn't peak when height (growth) ceases...changes occur across the lifespan Demographic (population) changes have stimulated interest in studying development in the middle aged and elderly s Population Changes in the U.S. 300 250 200 Millions 150 100 50 0 1900 1950 2000 *projected 2050* total pop. pop. >65 US Population by Age Group Obj101 Current Trends: 3) Interdisciplinary Approach s Today, there is interaction among the 3 sub-areas of motor behavior (development, learning, control) with biomechanics and exercise physiology Working together, experts can more accurately detect subtle movement changes and differences s Research Designs Cross-sectional Different subjects; tested at same time but at different ages Longitudinal Time-lag SequentialCohort Same subjects; tested at different times and at different ages Different subjects; tested at different times but a same age Combines subjects in all three designs Research Designs ~ Pros Cross-sectional Longitudinal Administrative efficiency Age differences observed Actual change in subjects' behaviors can be observed Sequential-Cohort Helps resolve problems (see Cons) of the above two designs Research Designs - Cons Cross-sectional Cannot observe change Selection of correct age groups is important to measure change Age and cohort are confounded Administratively inefficient Age and time of measurements are confounded Subjects may be influenced by repeated testing Subjects may drop out Administratively inefficient Costly Subjects may drop out Difficult to analyze statistically Longitudinal SequentialCohort Motor Development Terminology Click to edit Master subtitle style Terms Terms s Developmental directions Cephalocaudal - development from top of body downward to feet (e.g., growth of head size compared to lower body, changes in walking with control of lower body muscles) Proximodistal development from body center outward (e.g., prenatal development, control of movements) Terms Gross movement movements requiring large muscles of the body (examples: running, throwing, catching, kicking, skipping) s Fine movement movements produced by the smaller muscles (examples: typing, playing a piano, writing) s Terms Differentiation progression from immature movements to precise movements as motor control develops (specialization) s Integration - muscles are better able to function together (coordination) s s Producing mature movement patterns Terms Product (task-oriented) approach in the study of human movement outcome of the movement s Process approach in the study of human movement underlying processes (mental) and actual movement patterns s Recent research suggests that focus on movement Product aids learning! s Terms s Age periods throughout the lifespan (Fig. 1-5) Helps to organize the study of development s Stages: aka phases, time, levels, periods Unique, hierarchical, and universal behavior s s s s Terms Roberton: Stages of motor development Qualitative flow from one to another: All humans should progress through them Controversy over whether the stages of development actually exist But stages useful concept in organizing study of motor development but don't think of as actual universal characteristics ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2010 for the course KIN 4512 taught by Professor Reeve during the Spring '09 term at LSU.

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Chapter_1_and_introduction_-_SP_2010 - KIN 4512: Lifespan...

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