Lecture2 - Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” Richard Owen(1843 Evidence for Evolution

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Unformatted text preview: Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” - Richard Owen (1843) Evidence for Evolution Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” - Richard Owen (1843) Similarity that is due to shared ancestry is called homology whereas superficial similarity is called analogy . Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” - Richard Owen (1843) Similarity that is due to shared ancestry is called homology whereas superficial similarity is called analogy . Evidence for Evolution Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” - Richard Owen (1843) Similarity that is due to shared ancestry is called homology whereas superficial similarity is called analogy . For example, the wings of bats and birds are analogous but the wrist bones are homologous Evidence for Evolution Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” - Richard Owen (1843) Similarity that is due to shared ancestry is called homology whereas superficial similarity is called analogy . For example, the wings of bats and birds are analogous but the wrist bones are homologous other examples? Evidence for Evolution Homology Variations on a theme... why not something completely new? bat skeleton - yikes! Evidence for Evolution Homology homology is present at the level of DNA and protein sequences Evidence for Evolution Homology Amino-acid alignment from a homologous gene present in rat, mouse and human. Evidence for Evolution Homology Amino-acid alignment from a homologous gene present in rat, mouse and human. Evidence for Evolution Homology Amino-acid alignment from a homologous gene present in rat, mouse and human. Notice that mouse and rat are more similar to each other than either is to human. Evidence for Evolution Vestigial Structures There are hundreds of structures that are ‘vestiges’ of an earlier form that was functional. These occur at every level of biological organization-- from DNA to bones. Evidence for Evolution Vestigial Structures There are hundreds of structures that are ‘vestiges’ of an earlier form that was functional. These occur at every level of biological organization-- from DNA to bones. Pseudogenes- genes that have been rendered non-functional by mutations but are still clearly derived from a functional copy. Often they are partial duplicate copies that are nonfunctional or they may result from a redundant functional copy that accumulates mutations, in particular stop codons Evidence for Evolution Vestigial Structures There are hundreds of structures that are ‘vestiges’ of an earlier form that was functional. These occur at every level of biological organization-- from DNA to bones....
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2010 for the course BSCI BSCI 370 taught by Professor Castillo-davis during the Spring '10 term at Maryland.

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Lecture2 - Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” Richard Owen(1843 Evidence for Evolution

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