class16 - 1 2 Classical conditioning explains how a neutral...

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3 Classical conditioning explains how a neutral stimulus can acquire the capacity to elicit (or draw forth) a response originally elicited by another stimulus. Ivan Pavlov, a prominent Russian physiologist in the early 1900’s, who did Nobel prize winning research on digestion, discovered (partly by accident) that dogs will salivate in response to the sound of a tone. In doing so, he discovered classical, sometimes called Pavlovian, conditioning. In classical conditioning, the UCS is a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning…Pavlov’s meat powder. The UCR is an unlearned reaction to a UCS that occurs without previous conditioning…salivating. The CS is a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to elicit a conditioned response. ..the sound of a tone. The CR is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus…salivating to the tone.
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8 In classical conditioning research, a trial is a pairing of the UCS and the CS. (How many times have the tone and the meat powder been paired?) Some behaviours are learned after only one trial or pairing, while others take many trials. Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning a response…acquiring the response. Conditioning has been shown to depend on stimulus contiguity; that is, the
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class16 - 1 2 Classical conditioning explains how a neutral...

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