class15 - 1 Dreams are conventionally defined as mental...

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2 Dreams are conventionally defined as mental experiences during REM sleep that are often based in vivid imagery, have a storylike quality, are often bizarre, and seem real to the dreamer. Many recent theorists have, however, questioned almost every aspect of this definition. We know now that people dream in non-REM too, although the dreams are less story-like and vivid in imagery. Also, recent research shows that content is usually not bizarre, and that dreamers are often aware that they are dreaming. Thus, the scientific conceptualization of dreaming is changing. Research shows that the content of dreams is usually familiar. Common themes in dreams include things like falling, being pursued, trying repeatedly to do something, school, sex, being late, eating, being frightened, etc. Children’s dreams appear to differ from those of adults, with preschool children reporting bland images with no story lines when awoken from REM sleep (if they recall dreaming at all – children under the age of 9-11 report dreaming only 20-30% of the time when awoken from REM sleep, as opposed to an adult’s 80% of the time). Between 5 and 8, children begin to report dream narratives, but these are not well developed. Adultlike dreams develop at around 11-13, suggesting that dreaming is a cognitive ability that develops gradually. Freud said that the contents of waking life tend to spill into dreams; he called this day residue. People in Western cultures pay little attention to dreams as meaningful messages in their lives, while people from many non-Western cultures are likely to view dreams as important information about themselves, the future, or the spiritual world.
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6 Hypnosis is a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility as well as relaxation, narrowed attention, and enhanced fantasy. People differ in how easily they can be hypnotized…this is termed hypnotic susceptibility…10% of people are especially easy to hypnotize, 10% especially difficult…can be reliably measured with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Susceptibility linked to higher levels of absorption in a task and in a person’s imaginativeness…greatly depends on expectations. Research shows that people who are highly susceptible to hypnosis are just as responsive to suggestion without being hypnotized – Kirsch and Braffman (1999) call this imaginative suggestibility and argue that future research should focus on this broader trait. Phenomena that can be produced through hypnosis are many, including experiences such as anesthesia during medical or dental procedures, hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, or smelling something that is not there), disinhibition (doing things you would normally be more inhibited about doing, like taking off your clothes in public), and posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia- influences of suggestions made during the hypnosis session on subjects’ later behaviour (“you will remember nothing that occurred during your hypnotized state”). Researchers argue about whether hypnosis is really an altered state of awareness or if it is simply people doing what
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2010 for the course CA 1001 taught by Professor James during the Spring '06 term at Buffalo State.

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class15 - 1 Dreams are conventionally defined as mental...

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