Final Exam - Notes

Final Exam - Notes - CLASS 19 Human memory basic questions...

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CLASS 19 Human memory – basic questions - 3 basic questions o How does info get to memory? - Encoding o How is it maintained? - Storage o How is it pulled out? - Retrieval - In order to encode information to memory, we must pay attention. - Some say its more a filter process than attention - Ex – You are talking to someone at a party then you hear your name from across the room. Encoding - The role of attention - Focusing awareness - Selective attention = selection of input Levels of processing: - Encoding levels o Structural = shallow (is the word written in capitals?) o Phonemic = intermediate (does the word rhyme with weight?) o Semantic = deep ( would the word fit in the sentence “I waited _____ for you”) Enriching Encoding - Elaboration: often consists of examples…self generated examples work best on indivds. - Visual imagery: creation of visual imagery to encode words. - Self-referent encoding involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant. Information that is meaningful or memorable
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CLASS 20 Storage - Plato/ Aristotle compared memory to a block of wax – and remembering was like stamping an impression into the wax. - Modern analogies: info storage in a computer vs storage in humans. The “information processing approach” - This approach divides memory into 3 different stores: sensory, short-term and long term Sensory memory - Sensory info is preserved in its original sensory form for a brief time - Visual/ auditory sensory stores decay after ¼ second - George Sperling did experiments on the visual sensory store to show how brief it is. Short-term Memory - Limited capacity – can maintain info for about 20 seconds - George Miller wrote a book explaining how individuals can hold between 5 and 9 chunks of info in STM - STM has a limited capacity so info will go away unless rehearsed (repetitive verbalizing) - Peterson and Peterson study. STM as “Working memory” - STM is not limited to phonemic encoding, and decay is not the only process responsible for loss of info. - Phonological rehearsal loop o Inner thoughts - Visuospatial spatial sketchpad o Mental manipulation (re-arrange bedroom in mind) - Executive control system o Switches attention between tasks - Episodic buffer o Temporary, limited capacity store. Links information to create a story (proposed in 2000 for people like HM) Long-term Memory - “permanent” - store never gets full - Interference theory – we aren’t able to access info that is in the LTM - Semantic – meaning based encoding in LTM - We also used to think that decay occurred in STM and interference in LTM, with regard to forgetting. Now, it is unclear what exactly occurs in LTM, it may be both. - Some argue that STM and LTM are the same thing…just in different states.
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How knowledge is represented and organized in memory - Clustering – remembering similar or related items in groups - Conceptual hierarchies – multilevel classification systems based on common properties - Schemas – organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event from
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Final Exam - Notes - CLASS 19 Human memory basic questions...

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