MIDTERM CLASS 6 - CLASS 6 Organization of the nervous...

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CLASS 6 Organization of the nervous system - Central nervous system – Brain and spinal cords - Peripheral nervous system – nerves that lie outside the CNS - Two parts to the PNS: somatic (voluntary) portion and the autonomic (involuntary) prtn. - Autonomic portion – Heart rate, blood pressure, breathing etc. - When this portion is aroused…its movements speed up - Fight or flight – sympathetic nervous system - Parasympathetic system - contrast to sympathetic Cerebral Cortex - Temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe. - Temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing, visual processing and memory Saggital view of the brain - Brainstem: Vital role in basic attention, arousal and consciousness – essential for life - Cerebellum: coordination, balance, and voluntary movements - Cerebrum: the cerebral hemispheres and the thalamus/ hypothalamus - Frontal lobe: problem solving, impulse control, memory, language - Parietal lobe: processing sensory information - Occiptal lobe: visual processing - Limbic system – emotions, memories Communication in the nervous system - Basic components neurons and glia - Glias are cells that provide insulation for neurons - Neurons are cells that transmit info allowing communication in the NS
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The neural impulse - Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley determined that fluids inside and outside the neuron contain electrically charged particles, ions. - Also found that when a neuron is at rest, it has more negatively charged ions inside. - Action potential is when the outside positive neurons enter inside and mix with the electronegative inside. - Either action potential occurs or it doesn’t…when it does it goes all out (all or none) The synapse - Neurons don’t touch the synapse because they are separated by a microscopic gap: the synaptic cleft - The presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft (through action potential) -
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