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9Early Modern China - Early Modern China before 960 is...

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Early Modern China- before 960 is ANCIENT- gov’t positions in ancient china filled by military Song Dynasty (960-1279)- civilians dominated society and government positions N. Song (960-1127) S. Song (1127-1279) The Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) The Ming Dynasty (1368-16944) Difference between Modern and Pre-modern society 1. Predominance of civilians in society- all societies are modern where civilians reside, government offices filled by civilians and not military personnel, civil society 2. Way the government officials were chosen- aristocracy (members of royal family occupy key positions in gov’t); since Song Dynasty (civil service examination used to qualify candidates and intelligence used to determine position in government) 3. Agrarian society in Ancient China (self sufficient way of life; little to barter and market with; money was used but took the form of silver, gold, and copper) 4. Society was revitalized; during Song, cities began to grow exponentially 5. Spiritual life- Ancient China (Confucianism accepted as official ideology; religion played an important role Daoism and Buddhism); Confucianism became most important teachings in everyday life; rural life Confucianism also widely accepted; Confucian texts used even in lowest ranking schools to teach children; Confucian ideas have nothing to do with religion (system of values, secular values; no actual life or spiritual teachings); in Japan (spiritual religion played important role in society) Song Dynasty - 300 years; China Proper; 1126- Song controlled all of China proper (capital in Northern China); after 1126- Song capital moved farther south to Hangzhou (SE china) - Founding emperor Taizu (Zhao Kuangyin)- revolt of military officers and not fight for child emperor and inauguration of new dynasty - Best way to stabilize emperor is make sure capital city is safeguarded (capital is the heart of the city and the rest of the cities are the arms) Ruling Strategies 1. “Guard the inside and empty the outside”
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