10_Polymer_Physics_01 - Polymer Physics 2010 Spring Dept of...

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Polymer Physics 2010, Spring Dept. of Nano Science & Tech. Young-Soo Seo [email protected] Sejong University
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Polymer Science is a typical multi-disciplinary subject Polymer synthesis : organic chemistry & chemical engineering Processing of polymers : Engineering Characterization : analytical chemistry, physical chemistry Conformation, glass transition, Crystallization : Physics Rheology, time-dependent mechanical properties : Mechanics Coating, thin films : Surface chemistry Biomimetics, Drug Delivery System (DDS) : Biochemistry, Medicine Biodegradable polymer : Environmental Chemistry
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U.S. Polymer Production (billions of pounds) 1993 1992 1999 PLASTICS Thermosetting Resins Phenol resins 3.08 2.92 4.39 Urea resins 1.74 1.55 2.69 Polyesters (unsaturated) 1.26 1.18 1.72 Epoxies 0.51 0.46 0.66 Melamine resins 0.27 0.23 0.29 Thermoplastic Resins Low-density polyethylene 12.04 11.92+HDPE 29.67 PVC and copolymers 10.26 9.99 14.91 High-density polyethylene 9.91 9.81 - Polystyrene 5.37 5.10 9.69 Polypropylene 8.61 8.42 15.60 Total 53.06 51.57 80.86 FIBERS Cellulosics 0.30 Rayon 0.28 0.28 Acetate 0.23 0.22 Noncellulosics Polyester 3.56 3.58 3.83 Nylon 2.66 2.56 2.68 Olefin 2.14 2.00 3.08 Acrylic 0.43 0.44 0.32 Total 9.30 9.07 10.19 SYNTHETIC RUBBER Styrene-butadiene rubber 1.89 1.92 2.01 Polybutadiene 1.03 1.02 1.30 Ethylene-propylene rubber 0.58 0.58 0.75 Nitrile rubber (NBR) 0.14 0.13 0.19 Other 1.37 1.42 1.05 Total 5.00 5.07 5.44 TOTAL PRODUCTION 67.35 65.71 86.30 Chemical and Engineering News, April 11, 1994., June 25, 2001
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POLYMER SCIENCE Employment Opportunities: 135,000,000 tons of plastics alone are produced annually an estimated one in three research dollars in North America is invested in polymer science. Polymeric materials production ~ $100B Scientific Interest: structure-property relationships of polymers and polymer compounds polymer blending and compatiblization techniques Understanding biological building blocks Engineering Design Challenges: Biomimicking engineering polymer compound development design/optimization of polymer processing methodologies polymer synthesis From automobile, airframe components, fibers, fabrics, rubber products, packaging and structural polymer to polymers for advanced technology (NT, BT and IT)
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Introduction 1) Definition ± Molecular weights > 10 4 for high polymers (covalent-bonded) Low molecular wt. compound < 10 3 etc. macromers, telechelic polymers Oligomers < ~ 10 monomer units ± High polymer or Macromolecule ? ; most of synthetic polymers with distribution of molecular weights ; high molecular wts. compounds of biological origins : exact composition and exact sequence, mono-dispersed and well-defined molecular weights.
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What distinguishes polymers from other organic compounds is molecular weight and dimension. Differences in composition, architecture and molecular weight give rise to differences in mechanical properties (strength, elasticity, toughness) and chemical properties (solubility, aging). Many repeating unit
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Nobel prize (1953) Nobel prize (1991) Nobel prize (1974)
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H. Staudinger (1953) polymer chain formula P. Flory (1974) Polymer thermodynamics, kinetics, molecular weight distribution, solution theory P. DeGennes (1993) Polymer solid state theory and liquid crystals, scaling theory.
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10_Polymer_Physics_01 - Polymer Physics 2010 Spring Dept of...

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