PROPOGANDA FINAL NOTESLESSON 3: TOTALAll propaganda is organizedand requires the infrastructure and reach of an organization to design and implement its messages to an audience.Goebbels:#2 planned & executed with ONE authorityEllul:A Propagandist uses all technical means at his disposalAll elements are ORCHESTRATED Objective conditions of Total Propaganda: average standard of living, average culture, information, ideologiesThe Hungarian connection: Hungarian men depressed, high suicide rates –due to the downfall of the previous communist government in Hungary which provided employment for these men: propaganda campaign to help the population (topic)Hungary provides us with a telling example of totalpropaganda both past and present. Over the last hundred years, Hungarians lived through World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the occupation by Hitler’s fascist Third Reich, the occupation of Stalin’s communist Soviet Union and finally the chaotic situation after the fall of communism which saw unfettered capitalism continue the domination of its citizens.During wartime, messages from an enemy or to an enemy form the traditional meaning we have of propaganda.All brainwashing has:MILIEU CONTROL: Control of environment.MYSTICAL MANIPULATION: Leadership as infallible, unquestioned.DEMAND FOR PURITY: Striving for cleansing of discordant thoughts.CULT OF CONFESSION: The act of confession takes precedence over what is confessed.
SACRED SCIENCE: A bind with no escape. Both sacred and science are beyond us.LOADING THE LANGUAGE: “Thought-terminating cliché.”DOCTRINE OVER PERSON: Personal experience does not count.DISPENSING OF EXISTENCE: Who is ostracized either symbolically or by termination.The total nature of propaganda can also be understood through a total control of the milieu inwhich you live.What Ellul Has to SayA propagandist uses all technical means at his disposal All elements are ORCHESTRATED As with Goebbels before him, Ellul also asserts the necessity of comprehensive organization, or orchestration as he puts it. He also notes that effective propaganda uses all technical means available and not just relying on one method of disseminating a message.There are many methods to disseminate a message:Newspapers, posters, books, comics, magazines, film/video, television, radio, Internet, etc.GoebbelsEllul#2 planned & executed with ONE authorityA Propagandist uses all technical means at his disposalAll elements are ORCHESTRATED LESSON 4: TIMEAll propaganda is dependent upon time: both for being timely, responding to issues as they occur (immediate), and for being timeless, rooting itself on known values and familiar traditions (historical).
Quotes to be DiscussedGoebbels:#13 must be carefully timed.1Ellul:Propaganda must be continuous [what is approved today was condemned yesterday] and lasting; beyond any election campaign; fatal for propaganda to proceed in spurts with large gaps in between