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Unformatted text preview: Published on Course-Notes.Org ( http://www.course-notes.org ) Home > Science > Biology > Topic Notes By AdminChris Created 01/17/2010 - 16:21 Topic Notes These biology notes and outlines will help you study for specific biology topics. 01 - Science of Biology See included biology topics below: Biology Themes cell theory- all organisms consist of cells (basic units of life) • Robert Hooke - discovered cells • Schleiden/Schwann - concluded that all organisms have cells • all cells form from other cells • foundation for understanding growth/reproduction of all organisms molecular basis of inheritance- each cell contains detailed plan in its DNA • nucleotides- DNA building blocks, 4 total types; 2 strands in each DNA molecule • A can only pair w/ T, C can only pair with G (knowing 1 strand guarantees that you know the other strand in DNA) • gene- specific sequences of thousands of nucleotides; could code a protein or RNA • proteins/RNA determine what the cell is like • genome- entire set of DNA instructions evolutionary change/diversity- 3 main groups (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya) • Archaea group is prokaryote like Bacteria, but more closely related to Eukarya • Kingdom Protista - contains all unicellular eukaryotes except yeast, multicellular algae • Kingdom Plantae - organisms w/ cellulose cell walls and perform photosynthesis • Kingdom Fungi - organisms w/ chitin cell walls and perform absorbtion • Kingdom Animalia - organisms that ingest other organisms, lack cell walls evolutionary conservation/similarity- belief that all organisms descended from a single one • characteristics of that single organism still exist in cells today • all eukaryotes have nucleus w/ chromosomes • flagellae in animal kingdom all have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules • homeodomain protein - found in animal, fungi, plant kingdoms; developed early on and hasn't been replaced by better versions Darwin's Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin- wrote On the Origin of Species • contemporaries believed that species were unchangeable, structures made due to will of the Divine Creator • proposed that natural laws produced change/evolution over time • never challenged the existence of a Divine Creator • based his ideas on studies in S America and Galápagos Islands • didn't publish his results for 16 years until Alfred Russel Wallace submitted similar theory independently • The Descent of Man- argues that humans and apes have similar ancestors Darwin's evidence- from expeditions to the Americas • fossils of extinct armadillos found in the same area where similar armadillos lived • 14 species of finches on the Galápagos Islands all had different beaks from eating different food, but otherwise very similar • resemblances in plants in close areas, not similar climates Thomas Malthus- wrote Essay on the Principle of Population • pointed out that human population grew geometrically, but food supply grew arithmetically • only death prevents populations from growing out of control...
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