Week4 - What can be learned? Week 4 Learning Chapter 18, 20...

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Week 4 Learning Chapter 18, 20 What is learning? ! Improving performance based on experience: ! Discovering new relationships between input and output Which input data is important and which can be disregarded ! Discovering properties of the environment Learning the configuration of a maze ! Describing experience in a concise way ! Which features are best mapping from input to output ! Better than lookup table with previous experiences Learning Agents ! Agents have two major components: ! Performance element: Selecting action to take at each timestep ! Learning element: Improving the selection process by comparing outcome to optimal outcome ! Performance element must be written so that it can be modified by learning ! Logical statements or very modular code What can be learned? ! Classifications: ! Identify hand-written digits ! Filter mail into spam/not spam ! Find the face in a photo ! Actions: ! Robot balances upright on two legs ! Autopilot flies level ! Keep vehicle in lane Problem generator suggests exploratory actions rather than just letting the performance element select the action that it has already learned is best Feedback ! Indicates the results of agent’s output ! Can be in terms of correct answer provided by a friendly teacher ! Supervised learning ! Agent compares its answer to answer key ! Good for precise answers like classifications (recognizing handwritten digits) ! Can be a system of rewards and punishments ! reinforcement ! Better for gradient actions (balancing on two legs)
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Prior Knowledge ! Learning can begin with the first experience or can benefit from built-in bias ! Canned chess moves ! Ratio of letter occurrences in English Inductive Learning ! A form of supervised learning ! Hypothesizes a function mapping inputs to correct outputs ! Presented with example Tuples (x,f(x)): ! x is input ! f(x) is output of function applied to x Hypotheses ! A hypothesis h is an approximation of the true function f that you are trying to learn ! Pure inductive inference ! Given {(x,f(x))}, return h(x) which approximates f(x) ! The space of all hypothesis functions is H ! This is chosen by the person designing the learning algorithm Inductive learning x f(x) Inductive learning H 1 : first degree polynomials (lines) Inductive learning H 2 : second degree (ax 2 +bx+c)
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Inductive learning H 3 : third degree (ax 3 +bx 2 +cx+d) Inductive learning H 4 : fourth degree Inductive learning H 12 : twelfth degree Inductive learning Which is the appropriate degree?
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Week4 - What can be learned? Week 4 Learning Chapter 18, 20...

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