Adaptive Immunity-chapter 17 Tortora

Adaptive Immunity-chapter 17 Tortora - Adaptive Immunity:...

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Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host Chapter 17 Tortora
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Immunity Protection against disease (etc) The immune system recognizes foreign substances and develops an immune response against them. Innate or nonspecific immunity seems to have an inherited (genetic) component Adaptive or specific immunity adapts to a particular invader or foreign substance
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Types of acquired immunity Acquired immunity can be acquired passively or actively Active or passive can be acquired naturally or artificially Naturally acquired active immunity-exposure to antigens (you get sick and recover) Naturally acquired passive immunity-natural transfer of antibodies from mom to child (breast feeding and in utero)-this is short lived.
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Immunity continued Artificially acquired active -get a vaccination which introduces specially prepared antigens into the body Doesn’t cause disease but stimulates your reaction Artificially acquired passive -introduce antibodies into the body These are derived from serum so are called antisera Often inject a horse with antigen and then use the horse antibody (spider and snake antivenom)
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Dual nature of the immune system First Nobel prize winner was Emil von Behring who discovered immunity can be passed from one organism to another (now called humoral immunity) Scientists later discovered this was due to antibodies (1930’s) Cell mediated immunity is governed by lymphocytes Humoral immunity (antibody mediated) involves the production of antibody
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Humoral immunity B cells or B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody production This provides resistance to bacteria and viruses and bacterial toxins B stands for the Bursae of Fabricius Antibody or immunoglobulins recognize different types of antigen
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Cell mediated Immunity Involves T cells (T lymphocytes) that act against foreign cells or tissue T cells mature in the thymus gland Also regulate the activation and proliferation of other immune system cells Cell mediated immune response is directed against bacteria and viruses inside phagocytic cells or infected host cells, fungi, protozoa, and helminths This also causes rejection in implanted tissue
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Antigens and antibody Antigen is any foreign substance We recognize ‘ self’ and don’t attack it ( MHC antigen) Antibody is produced by B cells and combines with antigenic determinant or epitopes on the antigen Some antigens are small (a molecular weight of less than 10,000) and won’t trigger a response unless attached to a carrier. These small antigens are HAPTENS. The antibody reacts with the hapten, not the carrier.
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Nature of antibody Antibodies are proteins made in response to antigen that recognize and bind to antigen The valence of an antibody is the number of antigen binding sites Most humans are bivalent Antibodies are members of a group of soluble proteins called immunoglobulins or Igs.
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2010 for the course BIO 3302 taught by Professor Dr.nasreenhaque during the Fall '09 term at CUNY City Tech.

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Adaptive Immunity-chapter 17 Tortora - Adaptive Immunity:...

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