Chapter 4 - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and...

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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4
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Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells No Nucleus No Organelles Cell Wall of peptidoglycan Binary Fission 1 circular chromosome Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus Organelles If cell wall, Cellulose or chitin Mitosis Linear chromosomes
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Prokaryotic Cells Size Length 2u to 8u Diameter 2u to .2u Morphology cocci bacilli spiral
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Arrangement Cocci diplococci streptococci tetrads sarcinae staphylococci bacilli diplobacilli streptobacilli coccobacilli spiral vibrio spirilla spirochete
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Monomorphic vs. pleomorphic Corynebacterium diphtheriae
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure Glycocalyx - term to describe substances that surround bacterial cells 1. Capsule if substance is organized and firmly attached to cell wall 2. Slime Layer if substance is unorganized and loosely attached to cell wall
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Function of Capsule 1. Contribute to Virulence of bacteria by preventing phagocytosis by WBC’s A. Streptococcus pneumoniae B. Bacillus anthracis
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Functions of Capsules 2. Prevents drying out or dessication 3. Allows bacteria to adhere to various surfaces Streptococcus mutans - enamel on teeth to cause dental carries Klebseilla pneumoniae - attaches to respiratory tract
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