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Chapter 13 - Viruses Chapter 13 Viruses Viroids and Prions...

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Viruses Chapter 13
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Viruses, Viroids and Prions Ch. 13
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Study of Viruses - Virology 5 Kingdoms 1. Plantae 2. Animalia 3. Fungi 4. Protista 5. Monera
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5 Characteristics of Life 1. Cells 2. Grow and maintain their structure by taking up chemicals and energy from the environment 3. Respond to their external environment 4. Reproduce and pass on their organization to their offspring 5. Evolve and Adapt to their environment
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Viruses are: 1. Acellular 2. Obligate intracellular parasites 3. No ATP generating system 4. No Ribosomes or means of Protein Synthesis
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Typical Virus 2 Parts 1. Nucleic Acid DNA or RNA (But never both) 2. Capsid (Coat Protein) Some Viruses: A. Envelope B. Enzymes
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Host range Spectrum of host cells that a virus can infect Some viruses only infect: plants invertebrates protists fungi bacteria (Bacteriophages)
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Host range Most viruses have a narrow host range Polio virus - nerve cells Adenovirus - cells in upper Respiratory Tract
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Host range is determined by Viruses ability to interact with its host cell Binding Sites match Receptor Sites Binding Sites - on viral capsid or envelope Receptor Sites - on host cell membrane
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Viral Size 20 nm to 1,000 nm .02 u to 1 u
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Viral Structure 1. Nucleic Acid 2. Capsid (Coat Protein) Nucleic Acid DNA or RNA (But never both) ssDNA ds DNA ss RNA ds RNA
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Viral Structure Capsid (Coat Protein) protects viral genome from host endonucleases capsomeres Binding Sites Envelope derived from the host cell Binding Sites
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Viral Morphology 1. Helical
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Viral Morphology 2. Polyhedral icosahedral
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Viral Morphology 3. Enveloped A. Enveloped Helical B. Enveloped Polyhedral
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Viral Morphology 4. Complex
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Viral Classification 1. Nucleic Acid 2. Morphology 3. Strategy for replication
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Growing Viruses 1. Bacteriophages Lawn of Bacteria on a Spread Plate Add Bacteriophages Infection will result in “Plaques” Clear zones on plate
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Growing Viruses Animal Viruses A. Living Animals mice, rabbits, guinea pigs B. Chicken Embryos (Eggs) used to be most common method to grow viruses Still used to produce many vaccines (Flu Vaccine) C. Cell Cultures Most common method to grow viruses today
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