03_LectureOutline - An Introduction to Cells 0 Cell Theory...

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An Introduction to Cells 0. Cell Theory 0. Developed from Robert Hooke’s research 0. Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals 1. All cells come from the division of preexisting cells 2. Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions 3. Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level 1. Sex cells (germ cells) 4. Reproductive cells 5. Male sperm 6. Female oocyte (a cell that develops into an egg) 2. Somatic cells ( soma = body) 7. All body cells except sex cells 3. A cell is surrounded by a watery medium known as the extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid) 8. Plasma membrane (cell membrane) separates cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid 9. Cytoplasm 0. Cytosol = liquid 1. Intracellular structures collectively known as organelles Plasma Membrane 4. Functions of the Plasma Membrane 10.Physical isolation 2. Barrier 11.Regulates exchange with environment 3. Ions and nutrients enter 4. Wastes eliminated and cellular products released 12.Monitors the environment 5. Extracellular fluid composition 6. Chemical signals 13. Structural support 7. Anchors cells and tissues 1. Membrane Lipids 5. Double layer of phospholipid molecules 14.Hydrophilic heads—toward watery environment, both sides 15.Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails—inside membrane 16.Barrier to ions and water—soluble compounds
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2. Membrane Proteins 6. Integral proteins 17.Within the membrane 7. Peripheral proteins 18.Bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane 8. Membrane Proteins 19.Anchoring proteins (stabilizers) 8. Attach to inside or outside structures 20.Recognition proteins (identifiers) 9. Label cells as normal or abnormal 21.Enzymes 10. Catalyze reactions 22.Receptor proteins 11. Bind and respond to ligands (ions, hormones) 23.Carrier proteins 12. Transport specific solutes through membrane 24.Channels 13. Regulate water flow and solutes through membrane 9. Membrane Carbohydrates 25.Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids 14. Extend outside cell membrane 15. Form sticky “sugar coat” ( glycocalyx ) 26.Functions of the glycocalyx 16. Lubrication and protection 17. Anchoring and locomotion 18. Specificity in binding (receptors) 19. Recognition (immune response) Organelles and the Cytoplasm 3. All materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus 10. Cytosol (fluid) 27.Dissolved materials: 0. nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products 28.High potassium/low sodium 29.High protein 30.High carbohydrate/low amino acid and fat 11. Organelles 31.Structures with specific functions 12. Nonmembranous organelles 32.No membrane 33.Direct contact with cytosol 34.Includes the cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes 13. Membranous organelles 35.Covered with plasma membrane 36.Isolated from cytosol
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37.Includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria 38.
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