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An Introduction to Cells0. Cell Theory0.Developed from Robert Hooke’s research0.Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals1.All cells come from the division of preexisting cells2.Cells are the smallest units that perform all vitalphysiological functions3.Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level1.Sex cells(germ cells)4.Reproductive cells 5.Male sperm6.Female oocyte (a cell that develops into an egg)2.Somatic cells(soma= body)7.All body cells except sex cells3.A cell is surrounded by a watery medium known as the extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid)8.Plasma membrane (cell membrane) separatescytoplasm from the extracellular fluid 9.Cytoplasm 0.Cytosol =liquid1.Intracellular structures collectively known as organelles Plasma Membrane4.Functions of the Plasma Membrane10.Physical isolation2.Barrier 11.Regulates exchange with environment3.Ions and nutrients enter4.Wastes eliminated and cellular products released12.Monitors the environment5.Extracellular fluid composition6.Chemical signals 13.Structural support7.Anchors cells and tissues1. Membrane Lipids5.Double layer of phospholipidmolecules14.Hydrophilic heads—toward watery environment, both sides15.Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails—inside membrane 16.Barrier to ions and water—soluble compounds
2. Membrane Proteins6.Integral proteins17.Within the membrane 7.Peripheral proteins18.Bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane8.Membrane Proteins19.Anchoring proteins (stabilizers)8.Attach to inside or outside structures 20.Recognition proteins (identifiers) 9.Label cells as normal or abnormal 21.Enzymes 10.Catalyze reactions 22.Receptor proteins11.Bind and respond to ligands (ions, hormones) 23.Carrier proteins 12.Transport specific solutes through membrane 24.Channels 13.Regulate water flow and solutes through membrane 9.Membrane Carbohydrates25.Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids14.Extend outside cell membrane15.Form sticky “sugar coat” (glycocalyx)26.Functions of the glycocalyx16.Lubrication and protection17.Anchoring and locomotion18.Specificity in binding (receptors)19.Recognition (immune response)Organelles and the Cytoplasm3. All materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus 10.Cytosol(fluid) 27.Dissolved materials:0.nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products 28.High potassium/low sodium29.High protein30.High carbohydrate/low amino acid and fat11.Organelles31.Structures with specific functions12. Nonmembranous organelles 32.No membrane33.Direct contact with cytosol34.Includes the cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes13.Membranous organelles 35.Covered with plasma membrane36.Isolated from cytosol
37.Includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria38.