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review - chapter1 13:34:00 6 people'sthoughts,feelings, 6

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chapter 1 16/02/2010 13:34:00 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY is defined as the scientific study of the way in which  people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by the real or imagined  presence of other people. Social psychology is distinct from other social sciences because of its emphasis on  people's CONSTRUALS , or personal interpretations. Social psychologists have found that two motives are of primary importance in determining our  construals: the need to be ACCURATE and the need to feel good about ourselves. Social psychology is distinct from folk wisdom and PHILOSOPHY because it is an empirical field. Personality Psychologist    studies individual differences    Social Psychologist   focuses on the individual's construal of the situation    Sociologist  focuses on broad social, economic, or political factors    Folk Wisdom  knowledge based on observations of social critics   The Social Cognitive Approach   B. suggests that we try to get accurate social information  Behaviorism   C. had little effect on Social Psychology    Gestalt Psychology   D. had significant influence on social psychology    Social Influence   A. often powerful; outweighing individual differences in individuals  
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CHAPTER 4 16/02/2010 13:34:00 Actor/Observer Difference Description We tend to see other people’s behaviors as being caused by their personal disposition, whilst perceiving our own actions as due to situational factors. We also tend to see ourselves as being less stable and predictable, whilst others are assumed to be more one-dimensional, with less possible behaviors. This can be due to the fact that we have far more consistency and distinctiveness data about ourselves than observers have (see Covariation Model ). That is, we know better how and why our behavior varies between different situations. People watching us have to guess. The effect can be reversed when we put ourselves in the place of the other person, such as when we like them. In these cases, we will make dispositional attributions. We will also reverse the actor/observer difference when we are making negative conclusions. We thus make situational attributions when we make mistakes and dispositional attributions when other people do something reprehensible. Research Storms (1973) sat two people facing each other for a conversation, with two observers, one either side. Afterwards, they were all asked to make dispositional and situational attributions about the conversationalists. The observers made more attributions to the disposition of the conversationalists they were facing. After watching a videotape, the conversationalists made even more situational attributions about themselves.
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