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Chapter 9 Lecture Notes on Slides

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes on Slides - Chapter 9 Managing the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Managing the Research Function Function • Objectives • Explain product and technology life Explain cycles cycles • Describe the legal means to protect a Describe person’s ideas person • Discuss the nature of creativity Advanced Organizer Managing Engineering and Technology Management Functions Planning Decision Making Organizing Leading Controlling Managing Technology Research Design Production Quality Marketing Project Management Personal Technology Time Management Ethics Career Product and Technology Life Cycles Life • A new product begins as an idea new for the solution of a problem or the satisfaction of a need the • Solutions today are the Solutions problems of tomorrow problems Product Life Cycle Product Identification of need Product planning Product research Product design Product evaluation Production/construction Product use, logistics, phase-out Technology Life Cycle Technology Market volume Technology development Application Applications launch growth Mature Technology Technology substitution and obsolescence Research and Development Research • Basic Research • Searching for knowledge • Applied Research • Practical application of the Practical knowledge knowledge • Development • Use of the knowledge resulting Use in products in Strategies for New Products Strategies • First-to-market • Requires major R&D expense and talent • Follow-the-leader • Utilizes others research, but tries to get Utilizes there as soon as leader there • Me-too • Copying others (obtaining IP) and Copying compete on price compete • Application engineering • Alters products for customers (niche Alters market) market) Selecting R&D Projects Selecting • Need for selection • Estimates are that 1 profitable Estimates product requires 60 ideas product • Review Figure 9-3 Characteristics for Initial Screening Characteristics • • • • • • • • • • Technical factors Research direction and balance Timing Stability Position factor Market growth Marketability Producibility Financial factors Patentability Quantitative Approaches Quantitative • • • • Investment required to benefits Simple payback; T = Inv/profit Net present worth of proposal Maximum expenditure justified Emj = Fc * Ft * NPW Ft: Probability of commercial success Fc: Probability of technical success NPW: Net present worth Also ROI, cost benefit analysis Protection of Ideas (IP – Intellectual Property Law) • Four legal means of protection • Patents • Copyrights • Trade Secrets • Trademarks and other marks Patent Types Patent • Utility Patents (20 years) • Process for making or doing something (refining Process sugar), machine (computer), manufactured article (stapler), composition of material (cough medicine), improvement (better detergent) medicine), • Design Patents (14 years) • New, original and ornamental – not concerned with New, not how it is made, but with how it looks (cut of a dress or shape of a table lamp) or • Plant Patents (20 years) • Characteristics of a new plant asexually Characteristics reproduced (by grafting or selective cuttings – without seed manipulation) Criteria for Patentability Criteria • New or novel • Useful or have utility • Non-obvious to someone “skilled in obvious skilled the art” the • Not used, sold or known by others • US – first to conceive US • Other countries – first to file Other Tips for Patents Tips • Disclose • Primarily to prove the date of conception • Describe fully with sketches • Witnesses Witnesses • Demonstrate diligence by keeping a Notebook • • • • • • • Bounded Encourage daily entries Each page signed and witnessed Chronological order Pages consecutively numbered Handwritten by inventor in ink – no erasures Handwritten Date each entry/page Marks Marks • Lanham Act: any word, name, symbol, Lanham device, or combination device, • Trademark: distinguish goods made or Trademark: sold by others sold • Service mark: same but services • Certification mark: above meet Certification standards standards • Collective mark: identifies a group Copyrights Copyrights • A copyright is a grant, by the United copyright States, to an author for the right to exclude others (for a limited time) from reproducing his/her work. from • A copyright is owned by the copyright individual author except in the case of a “work for hire”, whereby the whereby employer owns the copyright employer Length of protection Length • Individual or group • Valid until 70 years after the death Valid of the works’ only or last living of only author author • Corporation • 95 years from publication or 120 95 years from creation years • Once the copyright expires anyone Once can use the material Protected Categories Protected • • • • • Literature Music Drama Choreography Pictures • • • • Sculpture Movies Recordings Architecture Trade Secrets Trade • A formula, device, process, method or formula, compilation of information that, when used in business, gives the owner an advantage over competitors who do not know it know • Used if one doesn’t want to disclose the want information to the public information • Can be a company’s most valuable asset • Customer lists, business plans, Customer manufacturing processes, marketing strategies (not patentable) strategies Web addresses Web • Copyright: Copyright: http://www.copyright.gov http://www.copyright.gov • Patent office: http://www.uspto.gov Table 9-4 provides a good summary of these concepts. Creativity Creativity Creativity is the ability to produce Creativity new and useful ideas new Breakthrough in thinking, an Breakthrough ability to reframe a project, a new way to connect ideas new Creativity Creativity The Nine Dots Draw four lines that hit all nine dots in the picture below, where each line must start where the last one ended. (You can't lift your pencil off the page). ooo ooo ooo Ideas Ideas Steps to Creativity Steps The creative process • Preparation • Frustration and Frustration incubation incubation • Inspiration and Inspiration illumination illumination • Verification Period of preparation, becoming immersed, consciously or not, in a set of issues that you find interesting. Period of incubation, during which ideas churn around below the threshold of consciousness. Insight, sometimes called the “Aha!” moment, when the pieces of the puzzle fall together. Evaluation, when the person must decide whether the insight is valuable and worth pursuing. Elaboration – filling in the blanks! Tools for Creativity Tools • Brainstorming • Ideas thrown out in group Ideas • No evaluation or criticism • Stimulates ideas but can have domination • Nominal Group Technique • Generate ideas in writing • Round robin presentation of ideas Round • Everyone participates but takes longer • Others • Attribute-listing • Mindmapping Characteristics of Creative People People • Self-confidence and independence • Tolerate ambiguity • Curiosity • Drive for knowledge/understanding • Approach to problems • Open-minded, interested • Personal attributes • Intellectual games, practical jokes, Intellectual creative writing, complexity creative Creative Environment Creative Provide an atmosphere to Provide encourage creativity … reward reward innovation and perseverance, know when to criticize know Give the freedom to think Don’t make them be you. Let them make be themselves. be Understand the timeframe needed. Understand Creativity and the Innovation Process Innovation • Ideas are cheap; those who implement Ideas their ideas are precious their • Invention (the creative process) only Invention produces ideas. They are not useful until they are reduced to practice and use, which is the process of innovation. use, Types needed: Types • • • Idea Generator (creative individual) Entrepreneur (“carries the ball”) Gatekeepers (infuse ideas into the company, Gatekeepers network with others) network • Program Managers (manage the risk) • Sponsors (financial/moral support) R&D Success R&D • Base technologies • Master and maintain competence • Necessary, but not enough • Key technologies • Provide competitive advantage • Differentiation in features or functions • Pacing technologies • The future key technologies Homework Homework • Chapter 9 9-1, 2, 8, 11, 13 ...
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