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Amir Motamedi Week 1-2

Amir Motamedi Week 1-2 - TA Amir Motamedi Email...

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TA: Amir Motamedi Email: [email protected]
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Slide 2|1: Pharmacogenetics: Pharmacogenetics examines the effects of genetic factors to variations in the drug response. Ex: I. Asian flush: Happens due to accumulation of acetaldehyde (toxic). Normally: Alcohol ----( Alcohol Dehydrogenase )---> Aldehyde --- ( Aldehyde Dehydrogenase ) ---> carboxylic acid Three mutations can happen for enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism: 1. Alcohol Dehydrogenase mutation --> becomes Less active --> slow conversion of EtOH to acetaldehyde --> accumulation of EtOH You fell drunk but not sick. 2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase mutation --> becomes more active --> rapid conversion of EtOH to acetaldehyde --> accumulation of acetaldehyde (toxic) 3. Acetalaldehyde Dehydrogenase mutation – becomes less active--> slow conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid --> accumulation of acetaldehyde directly and accumulation of EtOH indirectly You feel drunk and sick II. Codeine resistance: Codeine is weak pain killer. Morphine is strong pain killer. Normally: Codeine (precursor drug) ----( gets metabolized by P450 enzyme) --> Morphine Mutation can cause some people to have less active form of P450 enzyme --> Less metabolism of codeine to morphine --> Codeine remains unchanged. TA: Amir Motamedi Email: [email protected] Not from lecture
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Slide 3|1: Drugs: Drugs are divided into three major groups. 1. Prophylactic: Refer to the drug or procedure aimed to prevent disease . Ex: vaccines and vitamins and supplements. 2. Palliative: Refer to the drug or procedure aimed to relieve symptoms . The vast majority of the drugs in the market belong to this group. Ex: Drug that reduce high blood pressure. The drug relieve the symptoms for a while but the symptoms comes back and more drug is needed to be used. 3. Therapeutic: Refer to a drug or procedure aimed to cure disease . Ex: antibiotics, cancer drugs. After the drug is used, the disease is cured and does not come back. Relatively small number of drugs in the market belong to this group. Some drugs can be categorized in two different category. Ex: Antihypertensive medication are both : 1. Prophylactic (prevent heart disease such as heart failure and stroke), 2. Palliative (reducing high blood pressure which is by itself a disease that has been caused due to a number of factors). TA: Amir Motamedi Email: [email protected]
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Slide 3|1: Effective dose (ED50): Effective dose is the concentration of drug at which 50% of the patients show a predefined response. Ex: ED50 is the dose by which 50% of the patients show drop in blood pressure. This is not the dose by which blood pressure (effect) drop by 50%. LD50 is the dose of drug by which 50% of the patient die. Efficacy: Efficacy is the inherent capability of a drug to produce desirable effect. Ex: different drugs have the same efficacy as long as they have the same effect (the extent of the effect (relative effectiveness) is not presented by efficacy).
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