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Rebecca DS Notes - Worksheet#1 Bimm 118 Rebecca Sanders The...

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Worksheet #1 Bimm 118 Rebecca Sanders The following is intended to give you some practice answering pharmacology questions. It is not intended to be used solely as a study guide. Remember that questions on the exam come from the notes from class, so be sure to know all material covered in class! 1. What is the difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics? Also, give one example of a condition associated with pharmacogenetics. What causes this condition? See Notes! 2. Pain killers belong to what type of drug? a. Therapeutic b. Prophylactic c. Palliative 3. A competitive antagonist a) binds to the same site on the receptor as the natural ligand b) binds the receptor irreversibly c) elicits a response from the receptor d) shifts the dose-response curve to the right e) shifts the dose-response curve to the right AND down 4. What is the ED50? The dose that elicits a predefined response in 50% of the test subjects 5. What is the difference between the efficacy and potency of a drug? Efficacy refers to the capability of a drug, whereas potency compares the relative effectiveness of two or more drugs. Efficacy has nothing to do with how much you take. Two drugs can have similar efficacy, but different potency . 6. According to the diagram 7. Describe the process involved in patenting a drug (be descriptive!) Phase I, Phase II, Phase III (see notes) 8. What are orphan drugs? What incentive was provided in the 1980’s to encourage their development?
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Drugs that affect less than 200,000 individuals in the US. Orphan Drug Act of 1983. 9. What is one concern with taking dietary supplements (concerning their development process)? Give one example of a dietary supplement discussed in class and what it has been proposed to be useful for. No FDA approval process, no regulation. Ex: Leptoprin (weight loss) 10. What is involved in the preclinical trials portion of developing a drug? What is often a serious limitation here? Study effects in-vitro (cells/organs). Study receptor-binding characteristics. Move into in-vivo animal model and then predict the potential therapeutic uses. Animal models are often limitations! 11. Define and describe three different types of toxicity testing that must be considered when developing a drug. Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Reproductive toxicity, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, chronic toxicity. See notes for descriptions—be able to define these! 12. Give three routes of drug administration, describe an example of each. Oral (pills, tablets, coated tablets, capsules…) Topical/percutaneous (creams, lotions, eye drops, etc) Rectal or Vaginal (birth control) Pulmonal (inhalers) Parenteral (needles, IVs) 13. Describe the difference between external and internal drug distribution barriers.
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