Problemset1 TA John-2

Problemset1 TA John-2 - Antihypertensive medications 3 Old...

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Bimm 118 Worksheet #1 TA: John Diep 1. Define pharmacogenetics and provide two examples that demonstrate this concept. Explain examples. Pharmacogenetics examines the variations in drug response that are influenced by genetic factors. Ex.1 Asian Flush Asian flush is caused by a toxic accumulation of acetalaldehyde due to mutation(s) in an enzyme involved in EtOH metabolism. 1. Alcohol Dehydrogenase mutation – more active; rapid conversion of EtOH to acetaldehyde 2. Acetalaldehyde Dehydrogenase mutation – less active; slow conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid Ex. 2 Codeine Resistance Codeine is a prodrug that must be metabolized into morphine, the active drug. Some people have a less active form of the P450 enzyme that is required to complete this step, so the codeine remains unchanged and no therapeutic effects are observed. 2. Provide an example of a drug or drug class that is both prophylactic and palliative.
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Unformatted text preview: Antihypertensive medications. 3. Old drugs are sometimes marketed for new applications. Provide examples of two drugs that are marketed for their “side-effect.” Sildenfil () – antrihypertensive (vasodilator); also used to treat erectile dysfuntion Minoxidil (Rogaine) – antihypertensive (vasodilator); also promotes hair growth 4. Name the two methods used for new drug discovery. Drug screening – subject novel chemicals to a battery of tests designed to detect activity. Rational Design – specifically design compounds based on existing information 5. What is the underlying goal of the Orphan Drug Act? To give drug companies an incentive to develop drugs for diseases that affect less than 200,000 people in the US. 6. Briefly describe drug development starting with preclinical trials through Phase IV. Refer to lecture notes....
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