Lab 5 - Gaurav Singh Brooke Leslie / Dr. Chad Landrie 4...

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Gaurav Singh Brooke Leslie / Dr. Chad Landrie 4 March 2009 Lab Five: Steam Distillation of Monoterpenes (S)-(+)-Carvone and (R)-(+)-Limonene from Caraway Seeds. Analysis of Products by Infrared Spectroscopy and TLC. Introduction, Methods, and Background: The purposes of this experiment were to isolate carvone by steam distillation after extraction from aq. mixture with methylene chloride using a separatory funnel, conduct IR analysis to confirm isolation, and to confirm isolation of carvone by also TLC comparison with authentic sample. Results from TLC and IR indicate that carvone was successfully separated with steam distillation. Steam distillation is a processed use to separate and purify volatile liquids or solid organic compounds that are immiscible in water. It is not possible to use if the substance reacts with water, decomposes with steam or hot water, or has a vapor pressure less than 5 torr at 100 degrees Centigrade. The most common method for conducting steam distillation involves placing the organic compound(s) to be distilled in a round bottom flask equipped with a Claisen adapter, a stillhead, and a water-cooled condenser. This method involves codistillation of a mixture of organic liquids and water. The partial pressure of each component i of a mixture of immiscible, volatile substances at a given temperature is equal to the vapor pressure of Pº i of the pure compound at the same temperature and does not depend on the mole fraction of the compound in the mixture. As a result, each component of the mixture vaporizes independently of the others. According to Dalton's law, the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equivalent to the sum of the partial pressures of the constituent gases. This indicates that the total v.p. of the mixture at any given temperature is higher than the vapor pressure of even the most volatile component at that particular temperature. This is due to the contributions of the vapor pressures of the other substituents of the mixture. As a result,, the boiling point of a mixture of immiscible compounds must be lower than that of the lowest boiling component.
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Steam distillation is potent for separating compounds from reaction mixtures that contain large amounts of nonvolatile residues such as inorganic salts. The composition of the condensate from a steam distillation depends upon the molar masses of the compounds being
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Lab 5 - Gaurav Singh Brooke Leslie / Dr. Chad Landrie 4...

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