8+Depression2+notes - Depression Brain Activity Normal...

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Depression
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Brain Activity Depressive Normal
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Symptoms Concentration is impaired Inability to experience pleasure Increase in self-critical thoughts with a constant barrage of negative statements Sleep disturbance Feeling fatigued after sleep Decrease in appetite, or food loses its taste Feelings of guilt, helplessness and/or hopelessness Suicidal thoughts Increased isolation
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Epidemiology Affects about 13-20% of the population. Genetic component: about 60% concordance for monozygotic twins and only 20% for dizygotic twins. Unipolar depression often cycles with period of normalcy. Mean age of onset has dropped recently from 40-50 years old to 25-35 years old. Women all over the world have about 2X the incidence of depression than men, although that differences goes away as people are in their fifties.
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Drugs Original finding that Reserpine, which decreased norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin (monoamines) induced depression. MAOI's (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) increase norepinephrine and serotonin. Tricyclic antidepressants: Imipramine blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft and Lexipro are thought to increase synaptic serotonin.
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Gene/Experience Interaction The serotonin transporter comes in either a long or a short allele, and the latter produces fewer transporters
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