Review Slides - Homosexuality Could be because of early...

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Unformatted text preview: Homosexuality Could be because of early differences in hormone exposure: • Early onset (by four years old). • Prenatal stress increases homosexuality in humans and in rats. • There are brain areas that differ between heterosexual and homosexual males (although that could be because of experience as adults or as children). Brain differences in homosexual men Volume Cell Number Hetero No AIDS Homo AIDS Hetero AIDS Hetero No AIDS Homo AIDS Hetero AIDS Suprachiasmatic nucleus Temperature Some turtles, lizards, alligators, fish have their sex determined by temperature. Warm turtle eggs (>30 o C) are male & cool eggs (<28 o C) are female. In other species, cool eggs become males & warm eggs become female. Western swamp turtle Hermaphrodites Simultaneous hermaphrodites have ovotestis and first produce eggs and then sperm. Sequential hermaphrodites Some coral reef fish start as a female and then become a male when the dominant male in the hierarchy is removed . Queenangel fish FAS brains have increased cell death and altered cell migration • Mental retardation • Attention deficit disorders • Dyslexia • Decreases early testosterone surge in males Fetal alcohol syndrome Hydrocephalus • Normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is blocked and pressure in the skull increases. Does mercury in vaccines cause autism? • As the number of vaccines for children has increased, the number of autism cases has increased. • Thimerosol (ethyl mercury) is a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines. • Mercury is a neurotoxin. • Thimerosol injected into mice causes autism-like behavior. • Thimerosol damages cells in culture. Why do people believe it? • 20% of autistic children seem normal and then regress at about the time that they are receiving vaccines. • Temporal coincidence is a powerful cognitive force. • Media focus on scare stories and emotional anecdotes. • Caring for autistic children is physically, emotionally and financially draining. • People want to blame someone; the government and drug companies are good targets. • The responses of cultured cells and mice don’t necessarily predict human disease. • Confusion between methyl and ethyl mercury. Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration Morphine Withdrawal • Euphoria • Depression • Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia • Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Withdrawal is the compensatory response Clinical Implications • Abstention typically does not work; high recidivism rate. • Self administration increases probability of addiction. • Extinction is the only way to diminish a learned compensatory response • Unsignalled drug slows the development of tolerance • Interpolated blanks slows its development • Changing the conditions under which the drug is given slows tolerance • Vietnam returnees did not revert to addiction Dopamine mediation of addiction...
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Review Slides - Homosexuality Could be because of early...

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