BIO 207 lecture notes

BIO 207 lecture notes - Biology 207 Dunlap/Ammerlaan...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 207 Dunlap/Ammerlaan Lecture one, 03 September 2008 On the importance of microbiology Microorganisms bacteria (two kinds!), fungi and yeasts, protists, unicellular algae, viruses exist in almost every kind of environment deep sea, sea ice, boiling hot springs, external surfaces of plants and animals, intestines of all animals, tap water, solar evaporation ponds, etc. are abundant one gram of soil or one milliliter of seawater can contain 10 6 or more bacteria 30 to 50% of human intestinal contents are bacterial cells account for approximately 50% of Earths biomass are metabolically and physiologically highly diverse different ways of obtaining energy and carbon for reproduction different ways of coping with environmental extremes anaerobiosis, temperature, low and high pH, UV irradiation, etc. are evolutionarily exceptionally diverse possibly over one billion species of bacteria most forms of microbial life are not yet known Microbial evolution formation of the Earth approximately 4.5 billion (4.5x 10 9 ) years ago first microbial cells 4.2 to 3.8 billion years ago two kinds of bacteria Bacteria and Archaea metabolic activity transformed Earth (slowly!) example oxygenic photosynthesis led to a build up of oxygen in the atmosphere ~ 2 billion years ago, origin of Eukarya fusion of a bacterial and an archael cell Microbial activities essential for mineral transformations examples the sulfur and nitrogen cycles essential for remineralization of organic compounds CO 2 to organics to CO 2 essential for environmental and ecosystem health nutrient transformations and biological interactions humans and all other multicellular organisms on Earth evolved in the presence of and dependent on microorganisms without bacteria and other microorganisms, life on Earth would stop Practical considerations of microorganisms essential for human health normal development of the immune system many bacteria are beneficial block colonization or activity of pathogens provide essential nutrients essential for synthesis many industrial products organic solvents various synthetic materials vitamins, antibiotics, etc. essential for the food industry beer, wine, yogurt, cheese, kim-chee, vinegar, breads, soy sauce, etc. essential for degradation of toxic wastes and pollutants Professional opportunities in microbiology industrial microbiology food industry, chemical industry, cosmetics industry, pet food industry, etc. environmental microbiology waste water and sewage treatment academic research biological research at many levels (evolutionary, ecological, genetic, molecular, genomic, bioinformatic, physiological, etc.) epidemiology and health sciences tracking the spread of and treating diseases, clinical and biomedical research, medical technology government health and environmental regulatory agencies There are many, many employment opportunities for individuals with B.Sc., M.Sc., or Ph.D training in microbiology. Reading assignment for Friday...
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BIO 207 lecture notes - Biology 207 Dunlap/Ammerlaan...

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