Chapter 13 Meiosis

Chapter 13 Meiosis - Chapter 13 Alternation of Generations:...

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Chapter 13 – Alternation of Generations: life cycle in which there is both multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, & a Asexual Reproduction: generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of entire organism into 2 or more parts; offspring are genetically identical to the parent Autosomes: chromosome hat is not directly involved in determining sex; not sex chromosome Chiasma: X-shaped, microscopically visible region where homologous nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis, the 2 homologs remaining associated due to sister chromatid cohesion Clone: to make 1 or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell; single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual Crossing Over: reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis Diploid Cell: cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent Fertilization: union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote Gametes: haploid reproductive cell (egg/sperm); gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote Gametophyte: in organisms (plants/some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis; haploid gametes unite & develop into sporophytes Genes: unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses) Genetics: scientific study of heredity & hereditary variation Haploid Cells: cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n) Heredity: transmission of traits from one generation to the next Homologous Chromosomes: pair of chromosomes of same length, centromere position, & staining pattern that posses genes for same characters at corresponding loci; one homologous chromosome inherited from father & mother; also called homologs/homologous pair Karyotype: Life Cycle: generation to generation sequence of stages in reproductive history of an organism Locus: specific place along length of a chromosome where given gene is located Meiosis: modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of 2 rounds of cell division but only 1 round of DNA replication; results in cells with half number of chromosome sets as original cell Meiosis I: 1 st division of 2 stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half number of chromosome sets as original cells Meiosis II: 2 nd division Recombinant Chromosomes: chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from 2 parents into single chromosome Sex Chromosomes: chromosome responsible for determining sex of individual
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 13 Meiosis - Chapter 13 Alternation of Generations:...

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