Chapter 14 Mendel.Gene

Chapter 14 Mendel.Gene - Chapter 14 1 Alleles any of...

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Chapter 14 - 1 Alleles: any of alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects Amniocentesis: technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle Carriers: an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus, with one normal allele & one recessive allele; heterozygote is phenotypically normal for character determined by the gene but can pass on the recessive allele to offspring Character: an observable heritable feature Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): technique of prenatal diagnosis in which small sample of fetal portion of Codominance: situation which phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in heterozygote bc both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways Complete Dominance: Cystic Fibrosis: human genetic disorder caused by recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by Dihybrids: organism that is heterozygous with respect to 2 genes of interest; all offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrids (AABB + aabb AaBb) Dominant Allele: allele that is fully expressed in phenotype of heterozygote Epistasis: type of gene interaction where 1 gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited F1 Generation: 1 st filial, or hybrid, offspring in series of genetic crosses F2 Generation: offspring resulting from interbreeding of hybrid F1 generation Genotype: genetic makeup, or set of alleles, or an organism Heterozygous: having 2 different alleles for given gene Homozygous: having 2 identical alleles for given gene Huntington's Disease: human genetic disease caused by dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements & degeneration of nervous system; Hybridization: mating or crossing of 2 true-breeding varieties Incomplete Dominance: situation in which phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele Law of Independent Assortment: Mendel 2 nd law, stating that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair during gamete formation; applies when genes for 2 characters are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes
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Chapter 14 - 2 Law of Segregation: Mendel 1 st law: 2 alleles in pair segregate (separate) into different gametes during gamete formation Monohybrids: organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest; all the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohybrids Multifactorial:
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 14 Mendel.Gene - Chapter 14 1 Alleles any of...

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