Chapter 15 Chromosomal Inheritance

Chapter 15 Chromosomal Inheritance - Chapter 15 - 1...

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Chapter 15 - 1 Aneuploidy: chromosomal aberration in which 1 or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number Barr Body: dense object lying along inside of nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals. Representing highly condensed, inactive X chromosome Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: basic principle stating that genes are located in chromosomes & that behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns Crossing Over: reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis Cytogenetic Maps: chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in microscope Deletion: deficiency in chromosome resulting from the loss of fragment through breakage; mutational loss of one or more nucleotides pairs from a gene Down Syndrome: human genetic disease caused by presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: human genetic disease caused by sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by Duplication: aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from homologous chromosome, such that portion of chromosome is duplicated Genetic Map: ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markets) along chromosome Genetic Recombination: term for production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent Genomic Imprinting: expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from male or female parent Hemophilia: human genetic disease caused by sex-linked recessive allele resulting in absence of 1 or more blood-clotting proteins Inversion: aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment of a chromosomal fragment in reverse orientation to chromosome from which it originated Linkage Map: genetic map based on frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes Linked Genes: genes located close enough together on chromosome that they tend to be inherited together Map Units: unit of measurement of distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to 1% recombination frequency Monosomic: referring to cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of normal 2
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Chapter 15 - 2 Nondisjunction: error in meiosis or mitosis which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other Parental Types: an offspring with a phenotype that matches one of parental phenotypes; also refers to phenotype itself Polyploidy: chromosomal alteration in which organism possesses more than 2 complete chromosome sets; result of an accident of cell division Recombinant Types (Recombinants): an offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 15 Chromosomal Inheritance - Chapter 15 - 1...

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