Chapter 16 Molecular Inheritance

Chapter 16 Molecular Inheritance - Chapter 16 1...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 16 – 1 Bacteriophages (Phages): virus that infects bacteria Chromatin: complex of DNA & proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome; when cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with light microscope DNA Ligase: linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes covalent bonding of the 3’ end of one DNA fragment to 5’ end of another DNA fragment DNA Polymerases: enzyme that catalyzes elongation of new DNA by addition of nucleotides to 3’ end of an existing chain; different DNA polymerases (III and I play roles in DNA replication in prokaryotes) Double Helix: form of native DNA, referring to its 2 adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape Euchromatin: less condensed form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription Helicase: enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at replication forks, separating the 2 strands and making them available as template strands Heterochromatin: eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compacted during interphase & generally not transcribed Lagging Strand: discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in 5’ 3’ direction away from replication fork Leading Strand: new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along template strand toward replication fork in mandatory 5’ 3’ direction Mismatch Repair: cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove & replace incorrectly paired nucleotides Nuclease: enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA, either removing one of a few bases or hydrolyzing DNA or RNA completely into its component nucleotides Nucleoid: dense region of DNA in prokaryotic cell Nucleotide Excision Repair: repair system that removes & then correctly replaces damaged segment of DNA using undamaged strand as a guide Okazaki Fragments: short segment of DNA synthesized away from replication fork on template strand during DNA replication, many of which are joined together to make up lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA Origins of Replication: site where replication of DNA molecule begins, consisting of specific sequence of nucleotides Primase: enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make primer using parental DNA strand as template
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 16 – 2 Primer: short stretch of RNA with free 3’ end, bound by complementary base pairing to template strand, that is elongated with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication Replication Fork: a Y shaped region on replicating DNA molecule where parental strands are being Semiconservative Model: type of DNA replication in which replicated double helix consists of one old Single-Strand Binding Proteins: protein that binds to unpaired DNA strands during DNA replication,
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

Page1 / 7

Chapter 16 Molecular Inheritance - Chapter 16 1...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online