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tutorial - cplusplus.com C Language Tutorial Written by...

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cplusplus.com C++ Language Tutorial Written by: Juan Soulié Last revision: June, 2007 Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ The online version is constantly revised and may contain corrections and changes
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The C++ Language Tutorial 2 © cplusplus.com 2008. All rights reserved This document and its content is copyright of cplusplus.com © cplusplus.com, 2008. All rights reserved. Any redistribution or reproduction of part or all of the content in any form is prohibited other than to print a personal copy of the entire document or download it to a local hard disk, without modifying its content in any way (including, but not limited to, this copyright notice). You may not, except with express written permission from cplusplus.com, distribute the content of this document. Nor may you transmit it or store it in any other website or other form of electronic retrieval system.
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The C++ Language Tutorial 3 © cplusplus.com 2008. All rights reserved Table of contents Table of contents ............................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Instructions for use ................................................................................................................................... 5 Basics of C++ ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Structure of a program ............................................................................................................................. 7 Variables. Data Types. ............................................................................................................................. 11 Constants ................................................................................................................................................ 17 Operators ................................................................................................................................................ 21 Basic Input/Output .................................................................................................................................. 29 Control Structures ............................................................................................................................ 34 Control Structures ................................................................................................................................... 34 Functions (I) ............................................................................................................................................ 41 Functions (II) ........................................................................................................................................... 47 Compound data types ...................................................................................................................... 54 Arrays ...................................................................................................................................................... 54 Character Sequences .............................................................................................................................. 60 Pointers ................................................................................................................................................... 63 Dynamic Memory .................................................................................................................................... 74 Data structures ........................................................................................................................................ 77 Other Data Types .................................................................................................................................... 82 Object Oriented Programming .......................................................................................................... 86 Classes (I) ................................................................................................................................................. 86 Classes (II) ............................................................................................................................................... 95 Friendship and inheritance ................................................................................................................... 100 Polymorphism ....................................................................................................................................... 107 Advanced concepts ........................................................................................................................ 113 Templates .............................................................................................................................................. 113 Namespaces .......................................................................................................................................... 120 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................. 123 Type Casting .......................................................................................................................................... 127
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The C++ Language Tutorial 4 © cplusplus.com 2008. All rights reserved Preprocessor directives ......................................................................................................................... 133 C++ Standard Library ...................................................................................................................... 138 Input/Output with files ......................................................................................................................... 138
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The C++ Language Tutorial 5 © cplusplus.com 2008. All rights reserved Introduction Instructions for use To whom is this tutorial directed? This tutorial is for those people who want to learn programming in C++ and do not necessarily have any previous knowledge of other programming languages. Of course any knowledge of other programming languages or any general computer skill can be useful to better understand this tutorial, although it is not essential. It is also suitable for those who need a little update on the new features the language has acquired from the latest standards. If you are familiar with the C language, you can take the first 3 parts of this tutorial as a review of concepts, since they mainly explain the C part of C++. There are slight differences in the C++ syntax for some C features, so I recommend you its reading anyway. The 4th part describes object-oriented programming. The 5th part mostly describes the new features introduced by ANSI-C++ standard. Structure of this tutorial The tutorial is divided in 6 parts and each part is divided on its turn into different sections covering a topic each one. You can access any section directly from the section index available on the left side bar, or begin the tutorial from any point and follow the links at the bottom of each section.
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