Lab proposal 1 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking...

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Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company Matt Whalen Pinal Patel Alex Kazragis James Williams April 19, 2010
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Introduction : Sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as sodium bicarbonate, and more commonly referred to as baking soda, has chemical symbol NaHCO 3 . Baking soda has a wide variety of uses, mostly as an environmentally friendly cleaning chemical. The uses of baking soda range from fire extinguishers to face wash to use against heart burn. A new company recently started which has begun making baking soda. As with any good company the Athenium Baking Soda Company wants to hire people to test the quality of their product before they put it onto the market. The goal of this quality control team is to determine the actual percentage of sodium bicarbonate in the finished baking soda product and to determine which impurities, if any, are present in the final product. The Athenium Baking Soda Company produces its baking soda using a method which could easily cause it to contain impurities. They use the reaction of crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate with brine. Brine is essentially just highly concentrated salt water. The sodium chloride (NaCl) in the salt water reacts with the ammonium hydrogen carbonate and forms sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. See equation #1** **NH 4 HCO 3(s) +NaCl (aq) →NaHCO 3 (aq) +NH 4 Cl (aq) Once the reaction is completed the solution of the products is dried and then filtered out. However, contaminants may be present in the final product. In addition to sodium chloride, other chloride compounds might be present such as potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). These other substances are not used in equation one and cannot be filtered out of the end product. That is the purpose for the quality control team; to find out how much of the end product is baking soda and to determine which impurities are present using multiple laboratory experiments.
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Chemicals Available : 1) Sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) 2) 6 g of Baking soda sample 3) Approximately 1.0 M Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) 4) 0.1 M Calcium Chloride solution (CaCl 2 ) 5) 0.1 M Potassium Chloride solution (KCl) 6) 0.1 M Lithium Chloride solution (LiCl) Equipment Available : 1) MeasureNet spectrophotometer, cuvettes and nichrome wires 2) MeasureNet pH probe and drop counter 3) Volumetric flasks 4) Beral Pipettes 5) Kimwipes® 6) Crucible and lid Special Notes : *Each quality control team must determine the percentage of sodium bicarbonate in the baking soda in two different ways . *No more than 1 g of Na 2 CO 3 or NaHCO 3 should be used for each test. * Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 solutions should be made by dissolving 1 gram of solid into 25-30 mL of DI water CAUTION: Approved eye protection must be used at all times during this lab. Avoid any direct contact of eyes or skin with any chemical used, especially 1.0 M HCl.
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Procedure: Equations and formulas: 2NaHCO 3 → Na 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O (Equation 2) Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 (Equation 3) NaHCO 3 + HCl → NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 (Equation 4) Find the molarity of HCl solution. (Equation 3)
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