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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 Book Notes 12.1 Types of Solutions Solutions involving at least one liquid component • gas-liquid • liquid-liquid • solid-liquid Characterizing solutions • Solute is dissolved in the solvent • Saturated solution: contains the max amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature. • Unsaturated solution: contains less solute that it has capacity to dissolve. • Supersaturated solution: contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution. ◦ Not very stable ◦ Separation of excess solid substance ▪ Crystallization: the process in which dissolved solute comes out a solution and forms crystals • Large and well formed particles ▪ Precipitation • Small particles 12.2 A Molecular View of the Solution Process Intermolecular attractions play a central role in formation of solutions • Solute particles take positions of where solvent molecules normally reside • Ease that a solute replaces solvent molecule depends on strength of 3 types interactions ◦ solvent-solvent interaction ◦ solute-solvent interaction ◦ solvent-solute interaction Solution process 1. Separation of solvent molecules 2. Separation of solute molecules ◦ Both require energy input to break attractions ▪ Endothermic 3. Solvent and solute mix ◦ Process endothermic or exothermic ◦ Heat of Solution Equation Δ H solution = Δ H 1 + Δ H 2 + Δ H 3 ▪ Solute-solvent attraction stronger • Exothermic • Favorable process • Δ H solution < 0 ▪ Solute-solvent attraction weaker • Endothermic • Δ H solution > 0 Solution process governed by 2 factors 1. Energy ◦ Endothermic or exothermic? 2. Natural events have tendency toward disorder ◦ Favors solubility of any substances Miscible: completely soluble in each other in all proportions • Examples: methanol, ethanol, and 1,2-ethylene glycol with water Ionic Compounds • Solvation: process in which as ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in specific order...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course CHEM 13891 taught by Professor Hierl during the Spring '10 term at Kansas.
- Spring '10