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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 Book Notes 12.1 Types of Solutions Solutions involving at least one liquid component gas-liquid liquid-liquid solid-liquid Characterizing solutions Solute is dissolved in the solvent Saturated solution: contains the max amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature. Unsaturated solution: contains less solute that it has capacity to dissolve. Supersaturated solution: contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution. Not very stable Separation of excess solid substance Crystallization: the process in which dissolved solute comes out a solution and forms crystals Large and well formed particles Precipitation Small particles 12.2 A Molecular View of the Solution Process Intermolecular attractions play a central role in formation of solutions Solute particles take positions of where solvent molecules normally reside Ease that a solute replaces solvent molecule depends on strength of 3 types interactions solvent-solvent interaction solute-solvent interaction solvent-solute interaction Solution process 1. Separation of solvent molecules 2. Separation of solute molecules Both require energy input to break attractions Endothermic 3. Solvent and solute mix Process endothermic or exothermic Heat of Solution Equation H solution = H 1 + H 2 + H 3 Solute-solvent attraction stronger Exothermic Favorable process H solution < 0 Solute-solvent attraction weaker Endothermic H solution > 0 Solution process governed by 2 factors 1. Energy Endothermic or exothermic? 2. Natural events have tendency toward disorder Favors solubility of any substances Miscible: completely soluble in each other in all proportions Examples: methanol, ethanol, and 1,2-ethylene glycol with water Ionic Compounds Solvation: process in which as ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in specific order...
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