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H-W and Evolution

H-W and Evolution - Descent with Modification Evolution of...

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Descent with Modification & Evolution of Populations Part I: Vocabulary List Assign groups of students to define a certain group of words, and then have everyone share their definitions as a group and discuss. Terms and definitions used: 1) artificial selection- the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurance of desirable traits 2) descent with modification- Darwin’s initial phrase for the general process of evolution 3) evolutionary adaptation – an accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms’ ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments 4) homology – similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry 5) natural selection – differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the same gene pool 6) fitness – the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals 7) population – a localized group of individuals that belong to the same biological species (that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring) 8) gene – a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses) 9) allele – alternative versions of a gene that produces distinguishable phenotypic effects 10) locus – a specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located 11) genotype – the genetic make-up, or set of alleles, of an organism 12 ) phenotype – the physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic make-up 13) mutation – a change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity 14) genetic drift – unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population 15) adaptation— inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its suvival and reproduction in specific environments
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Part II: Evolution Discussion For this activity, you as a peer-leader will lead the students through a discussion over the following topics. Try to cover each bullet point and keep the students talking as much as possible. Get the students to use the new vocabulary they just learned. Evolutionary theory a. Theory” in common usage b. Evolution as a scientific theory Darwin: descent with modifications by natural selection on adaptations a. observations i. individuals in a populations vary in their heritable characteristics ii. organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support b. inferences i. individuals well-suited to environment leave more offspring than other individuals ii. over time, favorable traits accumulate in the populations Evidences for evolution a. direct observation: Darwin’s Finches, guppies, HIV, etc. for microevolution b. Fossil Record c. Homology: Mammalian forelimbs d. Biogeography
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