hw 6 - EXPERT SYSTEMS Definition of Expert Systems An...

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EXPERT SYSTEMS Definition of Expert Systems An expert system is a software system that incorporates concepts derived from experts in a field and uses their knowledge to provide problem analysis to users of the software. The most common form of expert system is a computer program , with a set of rules , that analyzes information (usually supplied by the user of the system) about a specific class of problems, and recommends one or more courses of user action. The expert system may also provide mathematical analysis of the problem(s). The expert system utilizes what appears to be reasoning capabilities to reach conclusions. .Expert Systems are an intelligent technique for capturing tacit knowledge in a very specific and limited domain of human expertise. These systems capture the knowledge of skilled employees in the form of a set of rules in a software system that can be used by others in the organization. The set of rules in the expert system adds to the memory, or stored learning, of the firm. Components of Expert Systems and how it works All expert systems are composed of several basic components: a user interface, a database, a knowledge base, and an inference mechanism. Moreover, expert system development usually proceeds through several phases including problem selection, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, programming, testing and evaluation. The model of human knowledge used by expert systems is called knowledge base which is modeled in a way that a computer can process. A standard programming construct is the IF-THEN construct, in which a condition is evaluated. An expert system contains a number of rules to be followed when used. AI shell is the programming environment of the expert system which generates user-interface screens, capture knowledge base and manage the strategies for searching the rule base. These strategies include forward chaining and backward chaining. In the Forward chaining the inference engines begins with the information entered and carries out the action of the rule when a condition is true. In backward strategy a hypothesis is confirmed or disapproved. Steps for building an Expert System The basic role of an expert system is to replicate a human expert and replace him or her in a problem-solving activity. In order for this to happen, key information must be transferred from a human expert into the knowledge database and, when appropriate, the inference engine. Through a formal knowledge acquisition process that includes: Identification Identification is the requirements analysis step carried out in traditional software development. It involves a formal task analysis to determine the external requirements, form of the input and output, setting where the program will be used and determines the
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user (Very important!). The participants, the problems, the objectives, the resources, the costs and the time frame need to be clearly identified at this stage. Conceptualization
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2010 for the course MIS 316 taught by Professor Kristine during the Spring '10 term at York University.

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hw 6 - EXPERT SYSTEMS Definition of Expert Systems An...

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