Psy351-Exam1StudyGuide - Personality Psychology Exam 1...

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Personality Psychology Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 – 4) Spring 2010 (7th edition - click on companion site) Ch. 1 What is Personality? -personality – consistent behavior patterns & intrapersonal processes -consistent being that the behavior patterns are similar across situations and across time -intrapersonal processes: thoughts, emotions, and motivations -who studies personality? Personality psychologists, clinical psychologists, and psychiatrists -Allport: 1. was one of the primary mavericks of personality psychology, who later became the president of the APA 2. he was a trait theorist who argued that there was something real within the individual that make that person behave differently way from everyone else -Rogers: -established the roots of humanisitic psychology -he defined “self” as an organized consistent pattern of perceptionof the “I” and the “me” that lies at the heart of an individual's experience -Freud -subconscious mind -he argues that much of what we do is under control of unconscious forces, ones that we are not aware of -Skinner -he was a behaviorist -he argued that people assume that they understand the reasons for their actions when in reality they do not; in contrast, trait and cognitive theorist rely on self- report data -he argued that it was unnecessary to figure out what happens unconsciously -brief description of each of the 6 theoretical approaches (i.e., psychoanalytic – Freudian & neo- Freudian, trait, biological, humanistic, behavioral/social & cognitive) -psycholanalytic: premised on the fact that people's unconscious minds are largely responsible for important differences in their behavior styles -Freudian: aggression has something to do with a death instinct, an unconscious desire to self-destruct, internal desires are turned outward, etc. -Neo-Freudian: -trait: believe that traits are what make up personality and that people lie on a continuum of various personality characteristics example: a trait psychologist may study the trait of happiness for the rest of one's career -biological: point to inherited predispositions and physiological processes to explain individual differences nature v nurture they emphasize genetics and hormones levels, such as levels of testosterone they'd explain aggression as something inherited -humanistic: identify personal reponsibility and feelings of self-acceptance as the key causes of differences in personality they emphasize personal growth and bettering of oneself belief that everyone has the potential to be good say that aggression is caused by environmental influences -behavioral/social learning: explain consistent behavior patterns as the result of conditioning and expectations Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner emphasis on how environment influences behavior
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Psy351-Exam1StudyGuide - Personality Psychology Exam 1...

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