6422000-AP-Bio-Chapter-Twelve-The-Cell-Cycle

6422000-AP-Bio-Chapter-Twelve-The-Cell-Cycle - 1 UNIT TWO...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 UNIT TWO: THE CELL Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle (Text from Biology , 6 th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) The Cell Cycle (Chapter Twelve) Cell Division Distributes Identical Sets of Chromosomes to Daughter Cells c A cell’s genome genome genome genome is its genetic information. This information must be copied so each daughter cell ends up with a complete genome. c DNA molecules are packaged into chromosomes chromosomes chromosomes chromosomes, DNA coiled tightly around histones. c Somatic cells Somatic cells Somatic cells Somatic cells are all body cells except the reproductive cells. Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. c Gametes Gametes Gametes Gametes, reproductive cells, have 23 chromosomes (humans). c The DNA-protein complex is ch ch ch chromatin romatin romatin romatin, organized into a long, thin fiber. Chromatin condenses to prepare for division. c Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids sister chromatids sister chromatids sister chromatids. They are identical copies of the chromosome’s DNA molecule held together by proteins. c At the centromere centromere centromere centromere, the chromosome has a narrow “waist” c In mitosis mitosis mitosis mitosis, the nucleus is divided. c In cytokinesis cytokinesis cytokinesis cytokinesis, the cytoplasm is divided. c In meiosis meiosis meiosis meiosis, gametes are produced. THE MITOTIC CELL CYCLE c Interphase Interphase Interphase Interphase: consists of the G 1 phase phase phase phase, S S S S phase, phase, phase, phase, and G 2 phase phase phase phase. In the G phases, the cell is growing to a large enough size to be ready to divide in two. In S phase, the chromosomes are duplicated. c Mitotic (M) phase: Mitotic (M) phase: Mitotic (M) phase: Mitotic (M) phase: The cell goes through division of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mitosis is broken down into prophase, prophase, prophase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anap prometaphase, metaphase, anap prometaphase, metaphase, anap prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and hase, and hase, and hase, and telophase telophase telophase telophase....
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