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8142793-AP-Bio-Chapter-Thirteen-Meiosis-and-Sexual-Life-Cycles

8142793-AP-Bio-Chapter-Thirteen-Meiosis-and-Sexual-Life-Cycles

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1 UNIT THREE: GENETICS Chapter Thirteen: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Thirteen: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Thirteen: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles (Text from Biology , 6 th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles (Chapter Thirteen) The transmission of traits from one generation to the next is called inheritance, or heredity. heredity. heredity. Along with inherited similarity, there is also variation variation variation, which means that offspring vary somewhat from parents and siblings. Genetics Genetics Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. AN INTRODUCTION TO HEREDITY Parents give their offspring coded information in the form of hereditary units called genes genes genes genes. Genes are segments of DNA – inherited information is passed on in the form of each gene’s specific sequence of nucleotides. Cells are then programmed to produce specific enzymes and other proteins to produce an organism’s inherited traits. Copies of genes can be passed along from parents to offspring. DNA of a eukaryotic cell is subdivided into chromosomes within the nucleus. In asexual reproduction asexual reproduction asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring. Single-celled eukaryotic organisms can reproduce asexually by mitotic division. The genomes of the offspring are then virtually exact copies of the parent genome. Some multicellular organisms are also capable of reproducing asexually. Individuals that reproduce asexually actually produce clones clones clones, genetically identical individuals. Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, results in greater variation, since two parents give rise to offspring with a unique combination of genes inherited from the two parents.
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