Lecture1 - ECE15 Introduction to Computer Programming Using...

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ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language Lecture Unit 1: Introduction
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 2 What Is this Course About? This course is about communicating with computers, telling computers exactly what you want them to do: We will study the C programming language -- a very useful language for communicating with computers. We will also study a special way of thinking when communicating with computers: breaking down a task into its components, design of algorithms, their evaluation, and so on. This is an easy course: everything should be clear! This is a difficult course: you will need to learn a new “language” and adapt to a new way of thinking. The students in this course usually have many different backgrounds. We will teach everything from scratch, assuming no prior knowledge of programming!
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 3 Outline of this Lecture Computer Hardware -- Overview Computer software -- overview Our very first C programs Some relevant history
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 4 Computer Hardware Computers are everywhere: desktops, laptops, cars, cell phones, iPods, TVs, DVD players, microwave ovens, and so on... All these devices share the following general structure: Input Devices Output Devices Memory CPU Bus Storage Devices
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 5 Hardware: Main Components CPU (Central Processing Unit): Consists of numerous logic circuits, in particular the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), operating at a very high frequency. This is the heart of the computer: it is here that comput- ation and data processing actually take place. Memory: Also known as “main memory” or random-access memory (RAM). It is here that all the data and instructions needed for the programs that are currently running are stored. Bus: Internal communication channel. Serves to exchange data between the various components of the computer.
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 6 Hardware: Main Components Input Devices: Usually, keyboard and mouse. But also anything that can serve to input information into a computer, e.g. eye-tracker. Output Devices: Usually, monitor and printer. But also anything that serves to get data/information/signals out of a computer. Storage Devices: This is where all files are stored. Unlike the RAM memory, these devices are non-volatile: stored data does not dis- appear when power is turned off. However, these devices are much slower than RAM. Examples include: magnetic hard disk, flash memory, CD and DVD, magnetic tape.
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Lecture Unit 1 ECE15: Introduction to Computer Programming Using the C Language 7 CPU: Frequency and Clock Cycles Programs are converted into sequences of elementary instructions for the CPU. These instructions are then carried out using an internal clock. Thus the speed of a computer is roughly
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