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HDE 100C-5 - HDE 100C Adult Development and Aging Topic...

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HDE 100C: Adult Development and Aging Topic: Brain Aging: Normal vs. Abnormal Readings: Textbook Chapter 3 pp. 79-93; Gatz (2007) article I. Normal Aging: Changes in the Brain a. Highly variable (unlike brain development); increased heterogeneity with aging b. Some similarity to disease processes, but remember that AD, Parkinson s, etc., are NOT normal aging; these are abnormal c. Principal characteristic of aging brain: CELL LOSS II. Normal Brain Aging: Cell Loss a. When does it start? b. How much is lost? c. Is the loss final ? d. How is this loss measured? i. Post-mortem cell counts ii. MRI volume analyses e. What are the characteristics of this loss? III. Cell Loss: a. Ventricles, Gyri, and Sulci i. Ventricular enlargement ii. Shrinking gyri and widening sulci b. Gray vs. White Matter i. Gray matter : mostly linear decrease from young adulthood to late 60s/early 70s; loss may slow down/stabilize in healthy aging, during older adulthood ii. White matter: stays stable until mid-60s; starts to decline, and then continues to decline throughout older adulthood. c. Cortical Regions i. Frontal (17% loss) > temporal and parietal > occipital > primary motor and sensory ii. Goes along with older adult cognitive deficits in executive functions, verbal and visuopatial memory iii. Degradation of white matter tracts mostly in PFC d. Hippocampus i. Estimate of cell loss vary among studies ii. Low: 3% per decade. 30s-70s
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