ETX 30-2 - Environmental Toxicology 30 Topic Chemical...

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Environmental Toxicology 30 Chemical Use and Abuse Topic: Chemical Uptake and Action I. Routes of Exposure/Administration a. Routes of exposure: lung i. Absorption is very rapid as the lung alveoli have an enormous surface area and rich blood supply. b. Inhalation exposures i. Environmental pollution (ozone, particulates, acidic gases) ii. Smoking burning plant materials (tobacco, marijuana) iii. Anesthetic gases (halothane, isoflurane) iv. Nebulizers for local effects (corticosteroids) c. Routes of exposure: skin i. Skin is an efficient barrier but can enter through open wounds. ii. Nicotine patch: slow release of nicotine to provide relief of withdrawal symptoms after cessation of tobacco smoking. iii. Contraceptive patch: slow release of estrogen and progestin to inhibit ovulation. iv. Slow release provides consistent levels not subject to the oscillation seen after individual doses. d. Routes of exposure: Oral i. Majority of drugs 1. Ease of use 2. Safer 3. No sterile equipment needed ii. But 1. Variable absorption a. Dissolution of drug b. Presence of food c. Gastric emptying 2. Patient compliance e. Injection routes of administration i. Intravenous (IV) ii. Intramuscular (im) iii. Subcutaneous (sc) iv. Intraperitoneal (ip) v. Advantages 1. Extremely rapid 2. Initial absorption step is by-passed 3. Drug levels are more accurately controlled 4. Good for irritant drugs 5.
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