ETX 30 Study Guide

ETX 30 Study Guide - Environmental Toxicology 30 Topic:...

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Environmental Toxicology 30 Chemical Use and Abuse Topic: Exam Review I. Lecture 1: Overview and Terminology i. Terminology: 1. Chemical: material produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules. E.g. Ciguatoxin, CO₂, Benzene 2. Element: distinguished by atomic number. I.e. number of protons in nucleus. 3. Compound: pure chemical substance made up or two or more different chemical elements. 4. Pharmacology: the science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects, and uses of drugs. 5. Toxicology: the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem, including the prevention and amelioration of such adverse effects. 6. Pathology: the study of disease. 7. Pharmacy: the branch of health sciences dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs. 8. Epidemiology: science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population. ii. Sources of exposure. 1. Environmental 2. Occupational 3. Therapeutic 4. Dietary 5. Accidental 6. Deliberate iii. Dose means the amount of chemical that has entered your body. 1. Determines whether a chemical will be beneficial or poisonous. 2. “All things are poisonous, only the dose makes it non - poisonous.” Father of Modern Toxicology (Paracelsus) 1564 3. Dose alone determines toxicity. 4. Units of dose a. Amount of chemical material in a given sample. i. E.g. drug preparation, plant constituents, water sample, air sample, etc. ii. Concentration- molarity. iii. Concentration- parts per million iv. Amount ingested/ kg body weight. iv. Calculations: 1. Molarity 2. Concentration 3. Ppm 4. Ppb 5. Ppt 6. Mg/kg v. Analytical measurements- what and how. 1. Sensitivity-how little can you measure 2. Specificity- is anything interfering with your measurement
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II. Lecture 2: Exposure and Crossing Membranes i. Routes of exposure/administration 1. Lung: absorption is very rapid as the lung alveoli have an enormous surface area and rich blood supply. 2. Skin: slow release provides consistent levels not subject to the oscillation seen after individual doses. 3. Oral a. Majority of drugs i. Ease of use ii. Safer iii. No sterile equipment needed b. But i. Variable absorption 1. Dissolution of drug 2. Presence of food 3. Gastric emptying ii. Patient compliance 4. IV: intravenous 5. IM: intramuscular a. Faster absorption than subcutaneous b. Absorption rate dependent on blood flow 6. SC: subcutaneous a. Slow, continuous absorption 7. IP: intraperitoneal ii. Parenteral vs. Enteral iii. Thiopental: short acting anesthetic (one IV push heart brain Out CNS Surgery Wake up; no side effects). iv.
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2010 for the course ETX 30 taught by Professor Byard,j during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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ETX 30 Study Guide - Environmental Toxicology 30 Topic:...

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