1Briefly explain the term “signal” and provide 3 examples including analogue
and digital signals.
Solution
:
Signals are functions of independent variables. They are used to convey information
from one point to another.
Analogue signals
Sound Signal, Pressure, Light
Digital Signal
Digital image pixels, Computer processing signals, mobile communication signals
2 Briefly explain the term “system” and provide explanations for the following
examples; dynamics of an aircraft or space vehicle, an algorithm for analysing
financial and economic factors to predict stock market activity, an edge detection
algorithm for medical images, and a typical second order RLC circuit.
Solution
:
System can be considered as a box which process signals to produce a modified or
transformed version of the original signal. Hence the system may do some
manipulations to the input signal and create an output signal.
Eg: Dynamics of aircraft
At a specific point in time the position of the aircraft is defined by its altitude and
velocity. The state of the aircraft changes when the time change.
Stock market activity
At any time instance the value of stocks fluctuate based on different financial and
economic factors. If the factors favour the company the stocks value of the company
increases and vice versa.
Edge detection
The edge detection of medical images is carried out by comparing the intensity of
adjacent pixels. At any given point in time there can be an edge or multiple edges
based on the intensity gradient between adjacent neighbouring pixels.
RLC Circuit
The voltage across an RLC circuit is given by v(t) = Ri(t)+L(di/dt)+(1/C) ∫i(t)dt
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This combination creates an oscillator circuit whose frequency can be varied by
changing the value of L and C. For a particular time the frequency of the RLC circuit
is determined by its inductance and capacitance.
3 “A dynamical system concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed
"rule" which describes the time dependence of a point's position in its ambient
space” Write a paragraph containing the above mentioned statement in plain
words. It is most desirable to include an example in your paragraph.
Solution
:
A dynamical system consists of an
ambient space
and a
point
in this ambient space.
The
ambient space
can be defined as a simple space in which the point is contained.
The
position of the point
in this space can be defined by a set of coordinates.
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 Three '10
 Pd
 Digital Signal Processing, Signal Processing, RLC, discretetime signals

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